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What is Gross Anatomy?
- focuses on large body structures that can be analyzed by the naked eye, primarily through dissection.
- a) anatomical position
- b) direction & regional terms (superior/inferior, anterior/posterior, medial/lateral, intermediate, distal/proximal, superficial/deep
- c) body plates & sections (frontal (coronal), median (midline or sagittal), transverse (horizontal), oblique (diagonal)
- d) body cavities & membranes (dorsal body cavity, ventral body cavity, thoracic cavity, abdominopelvic cavity, synovial cavities, serous cavities
- e) body quadrants & regions
What is the anatomical position?
a stance or position commonly used for visual reference points
What is medial?
towards the midline of the body
What is lateral?
toward the outside of the body
What is distal?
further away from the body
What is proximal?
closer to the body
What is intermediate?
middle of the body
What is superficial?
surface of the body
What is deep?
further in (internal)
1. What is frontal?
2. What is median?
3. What is transverse?
4. What is oblique?
- 1. coronal - front and back
- 2. midline or sagittal - left and right
- 3. horizontal - top and bottom
- 4. diagonal - 2 or more planes
1. What is horizontal?
2. What is coronal?
3. What is diagonal?
4. What is midline or sagittal?
- 1. transverse - top & bottom
- 2. frontal - front & back
- 3. oblique - 2 or more planes
- 4. median - left and right
Answer these orientation and directional terms
1. The lungs are ___ to the skin
2. The knee is ___ to the thigh
3. The arms are ___ to the chest
4. The heart is ___ to the breastbone
5. The navel is ___ to the chin
- 1. deep
- 2. distal
- 3. lateral
- 4. posterior (dorsal)
- 5. inferior
Answer these orientation and directional terms.
1. The skin is ___ to the skeletal muscles
2. The elbow is ___ to the wrist
3. The heart is ___ to the arm
4. The breastbone is ___ to the spine
5. The head is ___ to the abdomen
- 1. superficial
- 2. proximal
- 3. medial
- 4. anterior (ventral)
- 5. superior
What body plane goes left and right?
median (midline or sagittal)
What body plane goes 2 or more planes?
What body planes go top and bottom?
What body planes go front and back?
What are cavities?
spaces in the body that are filled with organs and these organs are often surrounded by membranes
4 legged animals have a different anatomical position than humans. What is the difference? (using a cat as an example)
- Humans - Dorsal (posterior) is in the back and ventral (anterior) is in the front. Superior top, inferior is bottom
- Cat - Dorsal (posterior) is above the torso and ventral (anterior) is below the torso. Dorsal and Ventral is also behind the butt and in front of the head. Superior is above the torso and inferior is below the torso
Summery: The only difference is that the the Cats ventral is on the inferior side and dorsal is on the superior side
1. Where is the dorsal body cavity located and what does it contain?
2. Where is the ventral body cavity located and what does it contain?
- 1. posterior side of the body containing the brain & spinal cord
- 2. anterior side of the body that encloses organs
What is the ventral body cavity also divided into?
Thoracic cavity & abdominopelvic cavity
There are 2 other smaller cavities: synovial cavities & serous cavities).
1. What is the synovial cavities formed by, surround, and create?
2. What is the serous cavities formed by, surround, and contain?
- 1. formed by fibrous layers, surround joints, creates lubricating fluids to reduce friction
- 2. formed by serous membranes (sora that are formed by membrane layers, surround organs, contain 2 membrane layers (parietal serosa & visceral serosa)
1. What is the parietal serosa?
2. What is the visceral serosa?
- 1. membrane layer that forms the outer part of the cavity (further away from organ)
- 2. membrane layer that forms the inner part of the cavity (closer to the organ)
What is the TIC TAC TO of the 9 regions decineated by the 4 planes?
- 1. right hypochondriac region
- 2. epigastric region
- 3. left hypochondriac region
- 4. right lumbar region
- 5. umbilical region
- 6. left lumbar region
- 7. right iliac (inguinal) region
- 8. hypogastric (pubic) region
- 9. left iliac (inguinal) region
Where are the 4 quadrants located?
- right upper quadrant - right upper ab
- left upper quadrant - left upper ab
- right lower quadrant - right lower ab
- left lower quadrant - left lower ab