ch 21 review
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What group dominated the Abbasid dynasty before the Mongol invasion?
Where did the Ottoman empire originate from?
Anatolia (present day turkey)
What accomplishment did Mehmed II achieve in 1453?
What were the Jannisaries?
infantry divisions made up of troops, adolescent boys in conquered areas. In charge of firearms.
What was the vizier?
(wazir in arabic) Was the overall head of the imperial administration, and he often held more real power than the sultan.
After Constantinople was conquered by the Ottomans what did the sultans set about doing to the city?
Rebuilind,g and further mosques.
What was the Suleymaniye?
Most spectacular mosque the Sulatans built, built at the behest of the most successful of the sultans, by Suleyman teh magnificent.
Explain how the language of the empire changed by the 17th century.
It was changed to the Ottoman turkish
List the internal problems that led to the decline of the Ottoman Empire
- -Poorly regulated the central government.
- -local officials obtained revenue and kept for their own purposes.
- -caged anyone who might be a threat to them.
When did the Ottoman Empire lose its dominance of the seas to the spanish in the 16th century?
1571, During the Battle of the Lepanto.
Explain how the Ottoman Empire was affected by their loss of monopoly over the indian trade.
- -Merchants and tax collectors weren't trading because trade routes were taken.
- -There was more silver which would set of inlation.
What were some fo the similarities and differences between the Ottomans and Safavis?
Likes:arose from struggles of Rival Turkic nomadic group. Arose to prominence as the frontier warrior champions of a highly militant strain of Islam.
Differences: Ottomans became champions of Sunni. Safavids espoused the Shi'a
Where did the Safavid dynasty originate from?
From a family of Sufi mystics and relgious preachers.
Who were the Red Heads?
Safavid's followers with distinctive headgear. Gaining leadership.
Explain why the battle of Chaldiran in 1514 was so important to Islamic history?
Battle between the Safavid's and Ottomans. Split the Sunni and Shi'a
What were the results of the battle at chaldiran?
Sunni religion won (ottomans) Safavid didn't have artillery.
Under which shah did the Safavid Empire reach its greatest extent?
Shah Abbas I
Explain the status of the Turkish chiefs under the Safavid shahs.
Gradually changed to a warrior nobility. Shah couldn't bring down.
What was the official language of the Safavid Empire?
Where did AbbasI place the capital of the Safavid Empire?
Compare the economies of the Ottoman and Safavid empires
- Same- had workshops, public projects.
- Diff- Ottoman traded more with jews and christians. Safavids constricted to part Portugal and traded more internally.
What led to the rapid decline of the Safavid empire?
the practice of confining princes to luxury atmospheres.
Who was immediate successor of the Safavid Empire in Persia?
Nadir Khan Afshar
Who was the founder of the Mughal Empire?
describe the accomplishments of Babur
Good miltaryier, taste for finer things, write history of INdia, better conqueror than administrator left bueracracy.
When Babur dies in 1520 who ascended to the thronw?
His son Humayan
Summarize the reign of Humayan
fled to persia, returns and restored mughal rule, dies falling down stairs.
List the achievements of Akbar
Built military systems, encourage intermarriage, debated w/ religious scholars, extended empire, made alliance w/ Hindu princes, made muslims respect cows.
Explain Akbar's religion Din-i-Ilahi
Blended elements of the many religions he was familiar with. To unite his Hindu and Muslim subjects.
What did Akbar outlaw in his empire which illustrated how he was advance of his time?
Banned burned wives alive on dead husbands?
What became of Akbar's religion at his death in 1605?
Rejected by both Hindus and muslims
Explain the trade between Europe and India by the late 17th century.
Europeans brought products from throughout Asia, to exhange for a vaiety of Indian manufactuers. Cotton.
What was the state of the Mughal dynasty by the time of Aurangzeb's reign?
Threatened by internal decay and growing dangers from external enemies.
What problems occured in the empire while Aurangzeb was busy extending the borders?
Peasant uprisings. Trys to put down revolts.
What impact did Aurangzeb's religious policies have on the empire?
It was for muslims only.
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