Histo Lecture 10
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Histo Lecture 10
Body Fluid Compartments
60% of total body weight (TBW) is _____
Where is the extracellular fluid found?
Interstitial fluid and plasma
Where is transcellular fluid found?
Synovial, pericardial, pleural, cerebrospinal, intraorbital
Where is 2/3 of total fluid found?
Where is 1/3 of total fluid found?
What are the percentages of the constituents in blood?
What does Hematocrit measure?
RBCs and WBCs portion of blood
What is normal Hct in Men?
What is normal Hct in women?
What is Anemia?
Hct as low as 10%
What is Polycythemia?
Hct as high as 60%
What does the body try to acheive in reference to fluid exchange?
Steady state balance of fluid intake and output
What determines fluid exchange between plasma and interstitial fluid?
Hydrostatic and osmotic pressure
What determines fluid exchange between interstitium and intracellular compartments?
Osmotic effect of small ions (and proteins)
Water moves from ______ to _______ concentration
What is osmolarity?
Number of osmoles per liter of solution
What is an Osmole?
Osmotically active solute particle
Volume of a fluid compartment is dependent on what?
The amount of solute it contains
Osmolarity of ECF and ICF are equal in what?
In steady state
When does volume contraction happen?
Decrease in ECF volume
What happens in an hyperosmotic disturbance?
Increase in ECF osmolarity
Isotonic solutions add to what only?
What are some typical causes of edema?
Lymph node removal
What can cause increased CHP?
Excess water retention
High venous pressure present in heart failure
Vessel dilation (inflammation)
What can cuase increased capillary permeability?
Infection & inflammation
Histamine release (injury, allergic)
What can cause decreased plasma proteins (decreased COP)?
What causes Hyponatremia?
Loss of NaCl from extracellular fluid
Excess fluid in the extracellular compartment
What causes Hypernatremia?
Inadequate fluid intake, profuse sweating
Diabetes insipidus - no ADH secretion
What is normal plasma sodium level?
What level is Hyponatermia?
What level is Hypernatremia?