Histo Lecture 10

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Author:
paffman7
ID:
66730
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Histo Lecture 10
Updated:
2011-02-21 16:40:26
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PT624
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Description:
Body Fluid Compartments
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  1. 60% of total body weight (TBW) is _____
    fluid
  2. Where is the extracellular fluid found?
    Interstitial fluid and plasma
  3. Where is transcellular fluid found?
    Synovial, pericardial, pleural, cerebrospinal, intraorbital
  4. Where is 2/3 of total fluid found?
    Intracellular
  5. Where is 1/3 of total fluid found?
    Extracellular
  6. What are the percentages of the constituents in blood?
    • 60% plasma
    • 40% RBCs
  7. What does Hematocrit measure?
    RBCs and WBCs portion of blood
  8. What is normal Hct in Men?
    42-54%
  9. What is normal Hct in women?
    46-48%
  10. What is Anemia?
    Hct as low as 10%
  11. What is Polycythemia?
    Hct as high as 60%
  12. What does the body try to acheive in reference to fluid exchange?
    Steady state balance of fluid intake and output
  13. What determines fluid exchange between plasma and interstitial fluid?
    Hydrostatic and osmotic pressure
  14. What determines fluid exchange between interstitium and intracellular compartments?
    Osmotic effect of small ions (and proteins)
  15. Water moves from ______ to _______ concentration
    Hypotonic; hypertonic
  16. What is osmolarity?
    Number of osmoles per liter of solution
  17. What is an Osmole?
    Osmotically active solute particle
  18. Volume of a fluid compartment is dependent on what?
    The amount of solute it contains
  19. Osmolarity of ECF and ICF are equal in what?
    In steady state
  20. When does volume contraction happen?
    Decrease in ECF volume
  21. What happens in an hyperosmotic disturbance?
    Increase in ECF osmolarity
  22. Isotonic solutions add to what only?
    extracellular volume
  23. What are some typical causes of edema?
    • Increased CHP
    • Decreased COP
    • Lymphatic blockage
    • Lymph node removal
  24. What can cause increased CHP?
    • Excess water retention
    • High venous pressure present in heart failure
    • Vessel dilation (inflammation)
  25. What can cuase increased capillary permeability?
    • Infection & inflammation
    • Histamine release (injury, allergic)
  26. What can cause decreased plasma proteins (decreased COP)?
    • Kidney disease
    • liver disease
    • malnutrition
  27. What causes Hyponatremia?
    • Loss of NaCl from extracellular fluid
    • Excess fluid in the extracellular compartment
  28. What causes Hypernatremia?
    • Inadequate fluid intake, profuse sweating
    • Diabetes insipidus - no ADH secretion
  29. What is normal plasma sodium level?
    135-150mmol/L
  30. What level is Hyponatermia?
    <135mmol/L
  31. What level is Hypernatremia?
    >150mmol/L

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