biology

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jhale317
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66747
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biology
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2011-02-17 11:32:48
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  1. A membrane protein that allows movement in 2 directions is called a____.
    Antiport Protein
  2. Function of proteins in the membrane
    provide a passage way for substances through membrane
  3. 3 main compounds of a cell membrane.
    • 1. lipids
    • 2. proteins
    • 3. carbs
  4. Provides energy for the cell
    mitochondria
  5. series of tunnels for transport
    ER
  6. What packages materials for export out of the cell?
    Golgi Apparatus
  7. What contains packaged material made by the cell?
    vesicles
  8. What contains digestive enzymes that kill invaders?
    lysosomes
  9. Allows on certain materials in or out of the cell
    cell membrane
  10. What is the green pigment for photosynthesis?
    chloroplast
  11. What do ribosomes do?
    assembles proteins need by the cell
  12. The control center of the cell that contains genetic information is known as:
    nucleus
  13. The movement of particles from high to low concentration is:
    diffusion
  14. The process of water moving from an area of high concentration to an area of low concentration is:
    osmosis
  15. Hypertonic solution will cause a cell to _______.
    burst
  16. Isotonic solution causes a cell to ________.
    stay the same
  17. Organisms that make thier own food are known as:
    autotrophs
  18. What is the site of photosynthesis?
    chloroplast
  19. The chemical compound for glucose is?
    C6H12O6
  20. What process does not require oxygen?
    aneorobic
  21. The process that requires oxygen is?
    aerobic
  22. What is ADP?
    adenosine disphosphate
  23. What is the energy storing molecule?
    ATP
  24. What is the anaerobic process of splitting glucose and forming two molecules of pyravic acid?
    glycolysis
  25. What is energy
    the ability to work
  26. The three processes of cellular respiration are:
    • 1. glycosis (no oxygen in cytoplasm 2 ATP produced)
    • 2. Kreb's cycle (oxygen needed in mitochondria 2 ATP produced)
    • 3. electrons (oxygen needed – in mitochondria 34 ATP produced)
  27. The total ATP per 1 glucose is?
    38
  28. The general equation for photosynthesis is:
    6CO2+6H2Ov -> C6H12O6 + 6O2
  29. When and why does our body use lactic acid fermentation?
    In the absence of O2
  30. Does Simple Diffussion require energy?
    NO
  31. Plasma Membrane is made of a Phospholipid_____.
    Bilayer
  32. Cell Membrane is also called a____.
    Plasma Membrane
  33. The phospholipids have a hydrophilic___ and 2 Hydropholoic _____,
    • Hydropilic Head
    • Hydropolic Tail
  34. Define
    Isotonic
    Hypertonic
    Hypotonic
    • Iso- =amount of water coming in and out of cell
    • Hyper- To much water leaving cell
    • Hypo- To much water coming in a cell
  35. What type of sun wavelengths do plants perfer?
    Visible
  36. 3 major events in photo Synthesis
    • 1. Absorbtion of light
    • 2. Conversition of light energy into chemical energy.
    • 3. Storage of potential energy in the form of carbs.
  37. The majority of cell respiration occurs in the
    mitochondria
  38. General Equation for Cell Respiration
    C6H12O6 + O2-->6CO2 + 6H2O + 38ATP
  39. What is this called?
    The two 3-carbon pyruvate molecules enter the mitochondria
    •This stage requires oxygen to further break down the 3-carbon pyruvate molecules. This is called aerobic respiration.
    •These 3-carbon pyruvate molecules are processed further and produce new molecules that are electron carriers.
    •These electron carrier molecules are called NADH and FADH (the H - hydrogen carries the electrons needed for the next stage)
    Kreb's Cycle
  40. Begins with glucose entering the cell.
    •Glucose is a 6-carbon molecule
    •During glycolysis, glucose is broken in half to form two 3-carbon pyruvate molecules.
    •This REQUIRES two ATP to start the process but then 4 ATP are produced. So there is a NET production of 2 ATP.
    •This stage does NOT require any oxygen and occurs in the cytoplasm.
    •The two 3-carbon pyruvate molecules then enter the mitochondria for the second stage – Kreb’s cycle
    Glycolysis
  41. What happens if there is NO OXYGEN for the Kreb’s Cycle?
    Instead of producing ATP, another product is formed.

    The process is called fermentation–

    In animal cells, lactic acid is made (this is the “burn” you feel when you overwork your muscles)–

    In yeast cells, alcohol fermentation occurs (this is the process that makes ethanol or grain alcohol)
  42. What is Series of reactions by which plants, algae and some bacteria use light energy from the sun to synthesize large, energy-rich molecules?
    Photosynthesis
  43. What are the three types of sun wavelengths>
    • 1. Ultraviolet
    • 2. Visible
    • 3. Infrared
  44. What do plants do with the colored wavelenghts
    absorb red and blue and reflect green
  45. Chlorophyll uses energy of sun excite electrons and to break down water into electrons
    •Oxygen is given off as a by-product of the breakdown of water
    •The H+ from the breakdown of water are used to produce 2ATP and 1NADPH for the 2ndphase of photosynthesis
    Light reaction in Photosynthesis
  46. •The Dark Reaction uses the ATP and NADPH from the light reaction and CO2 to create glucose
    •The CO2 enters the leaf through the stomata and occurs in the stroma
    •The CO2combines with a 5-C sugar to make a 6-C sugar that quickly splits into two 3-C sugars (Uses the ATP and NADPH)
    •The 3-C sugar can then be used to make glucose, starch, sucrose, lipids, proteins and other molecules the plant may need to function
    Carbon Fixation (The Dark Reaction)
  47. 4 classes of Biological Macromolecules
    • •nucleic acids
    • •proteins
    • •carbohydrates
    • •lipids
  48. 3 parts of Nucleic Acids
    • •phosphate group
    • •sugar group
    • •nitrogen base
  49. 5 bases of Nucleic Acids
    • •Adenine (A)
    • •Guanine (G)
    • •Cytosine (C)
    • •Thymine (T)
    • •Uracil(U)
  50. Vesicles form inside the cell, move outward, fuse with the cell membrane, and expel their contents
    Exocytosis
  51. DIfference between Secretion and excretion
    • Secretion – release of product useful to cell
    • Excretion – release of waste product
  52. 7 Characteristics of Living Things
    • 1) Living things are highly ordered.
    • 2) Living things are organized into units called cells.
    • 3) Living things use energy from their environment
    • 4) Living organisms respond to stimuli
    • 5) Living things develop.
    • 6) Living things reproduce themselves
    • 7) Living things contain genetic information
  53. Describe the four basic shapes of bacterial cells
    • Bacillus (pl. bacilli):•Rod-shaped
    • Coccus(pl. cocci):•Sphere-shaped
    • Spirillium: spiral shaped
    • Spirochetes: Spiral shaped with flagella•Very Motile

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