Hypertension

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Author:
ex0311
ID:
66754
Filename:
Hypertension
Updated:
2011-02-22 00:50:53
Tags:
hypertension
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Description:
hypertension
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  1. Define Hypertension
    • Systolic BP: > 140 mmHg
    • Diastolic BP: > 90 mmHg
    • -based on the average of two or more accurate blood pressure measurements.
  2. Normal BP:
    • Systolic: < 120 mmHg
    • Diastolic: < 80 mmHg
  3. Prehypertension
    • Systolic: 120-139
    • Diastolic: 80-89
  4. Stage 1 htn:
    • Systolic: 140-159
    • Diastolic: 90-99
  5. Stage 2 htn:
    • Systolic: > or = to 160
    • Diastolic: > or = 100
  6. Define primary hypertension:
    also called essential htn; denotes high BP from an unidentified cause
  7. Define secondary hypertension:
    High BP related to identified causes, such as renal disease, narrowing of the renal arteries, renal parenchymal disease, hyperaldosteronism, certain medications, pregnancy, and coarctation of the aorta.
  8. Risk factors:
    • -atherosclerotic heart disease
    • -dyslipidemia (abnormal blood fat levels)
    • -obesity
    • -diabetes mellitus
    • -metabolic syndrome
    • -sedentary lifestyle
    • -heart failure
    • -coronary artery disease
    • -hx of stroke
    • -smoking
    • -age > 60
    • -family hx of htn
    • -excessive caloric intake
    • -high salt or caffeine intake, low K, Ca, Mg intake
    • -Gender-women after menopause have higher rates
  9. Right-sided Heart failure
    Systemic circulation: Peripheral edema
  10. Left-sided Heart failure
    Pulmonary: edema in the lungs
  11. Htn as a sign:
    Nurses and other health care professionals use blood pressure to monitor a patient's clinical status. Elevated pressure may indicate an excessive dose of vasoconstrictive medication or other problems.
  12. Htn as a risk factor:
    Htn contributes to to the rate at which atherosclerotic plaque accumulates within arterial walls, retinal problems, heart, kidneys.
  13. Htn as a disease:
    Htn is a major contributor to death from cardiac, cerebrovascular, renal, and peripheral vascular disease.
  14. Prolonged BP elevation damages:
    • Blood vessels throughout the body, particularly in target organs such as the:
    • heart
    • kidneys
    • brain
    • eyes
  15. Usual consequences of prolonged, uncontrolled htn:
    • Myocardial Infarction
    • Heart failure
    • Renal failure
    • Strokes
    • Impaired vision
  16. Manifestations of target organ damage
    • Heart - CAD, MI, Angina
    • Brain - headache, tingling, numbness on one side of the body
    • Kidney - proteinuria, ^ BUN
    • Peripheral arteries - venous pooling, edema
    • Retina - vision changes
  17. b Define hypertrophy
    Enlargement of the left ventricle of the heart may ocur as it works to pump blood against the elevated pressure
  18. N102 med therapy for htn:
    • thiazide diuretics (hydrochlorothiazide)
    • Loop diuretics - furosemide (Lasix)
    • Potassium-sparing diuretics
    • Aldosterone receptor blockers
    • Central Alpha2-Agonists and other centrally acting drugs
    • Beta blockers - (slows HR)
    • -Propanolol (Inderal)
    • -Metoprolol (lopressor)
    • Vasodilators
    • -Nitroglycerine (only in hypertensive emergencies)
    • ACE-Angiotensin Converting Enzymes Inhibitors - stops vasoconstriction
    • -Ramipril (Altace)
    • -Captopril (Capoten)

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