Neuro Lecture 6

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paffman7
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66771
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Neuro Lecture 6
Updated:
2011-02-19 16:26:23
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PT672
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Cranial Nerves
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  1. What is the function, type, deficit, and test of olfactory nerve (I)?
    • Function: Smell
    • Type: Sensory
    • Deficit: Unilateral anosmia
    • Test: Odor categories, test ipsilaterally
  2. What are the function, type, deficit, and test for Optic Nerve (II)?
    • Function: Visual acuity
    • Type: Sensory
    • Deficit: Visual loss
    • Test: Snellen chart, test one eye at a time
  3. Where are the primary neurons for the optic projections?
    Retinas
  4. Where do most of the fibers of the optic projections travel?
    Lateral geniculate nucleus of the Thalamus
  5. Tertiary neurons within the LGN go to where?
    The primary visual cortex in the calcarine sulcus via the geniculocalcarine tract
  6. Visual information that reaches the temporal field is sent to the _______ part of the occipital lobe
    Ipsilateral
  7. Visual information that reaches the nasal field is sent to the ______ part of the occipital lobe
    contralateral
  8. When someone suffers from ipsilateral blindness, where is the lesion?
    On the optic nerve
  9. What does ipsilateral blindness result in?
    complete loss of vision in ipsilateral eye
  10. In bitemporal hemianopsia, where is the lesion?
    at the mid-chiasm?
  11. What loss comes with bitemporal hemianopsia?
    Loss of peripheral vision bilaterally (tunnel vision)
  12. Where is the lesion in right nasa field cut?
    Lesion to right temporal projections from retina at the chiasm level
  13. What is Homonymous Hemianopsia and where does the lesion occur to bring about this condition?
    • Complete loss of vision in opposite half of visual field
    • Damage to optic tract
  14. What area is lesioned to cause homonymous superior quadrantaopsia?
    Lesion to Meyer's Loop, beyond the Thalamus
  15. What is the function, type, deficit, and test of the Occulomotor Nerve (CN III)?
    • Function: Moves eye, constricts pupil, accommodates lens, opens eye lid
    • Type: Motor
    • Deficit: Eye deviates down and out, dilated pupil, ptosis, diplopia
    • Test: Planes of gaze, pupillary reactivity
  16. What is Nystagmus?
    Oscillating, conjugate movement
  17. What is VOR?
    • Vestibulo-Ocular Reflex
    • Moves eyes to compensate for head movement. Involves semicircular canals, vestibular nuclei and motor nuclei of eyes
  18. What are the Afferent and Efferent nerves of the Vestibulo-Occular Reflex?
    • Afferent: CN VIII
    • Efferent: CN III, IV, VI
  19. What is in charge of the Visceral Motor Component of CN III?
    Edinger-Westphal nucleus in the midbrain
  20. What are the afferent and efferent limbs in the pupillary light reflex?
    • Afferent: CN II
    • Efferent: CN III
  21. What is the Accommodation Reflex?
    Increase in lens curvature and pupillary restriction for near vision
  22. What is Strabismus?
    Inability to direct both eyes towards the same object and consequent diplopia
  23. What is Ptosis?
    • Eyelid droop
    • Dilation of pupil
    • Downward abducted eye
    • Paralysis of accommodation
  24. What are two types of Oculomotor Opthalmoplegia (LMN lesions)?
    • Strabismus
    • Ptosis
  25. What is the function, type, deficit, and test of the Trochlear Nerve (CN IV)?
    • Function: Moves eye DOWN and out
    • Type: Motor
    • Deficit: Eye deviates up, diplopia, head tilt
    • Test: Down and IN (when eye adducted only SO depresses)
  26. What is Trochlear Nerve Palsy and how does it present?
    • Acquired and congenital
    • Compensatory Head Tilt (contralateral)
    • Hypertropia - vertical strabisimus
  27. What is the function, type, deficit, and test for Trigeminal Nerve (CN V)?
    • Function: Sensation to face, dura, muscles of mastication
    • Type: Sensory/motor
    • Deficit: Facial numbness, loss of corneal blink, weak bite
    • Test:
    • -Sensory: Facial sensation, corneal reflex
    • -Motor: Close jaw against resistance
  28. What are the three branches of CN V and where do they go?
    • V1: eye, forehead, orbit
    • V2: Upper jaw, mid face, nose
    • V3: Low jaw, ear, lips, tongue
  29. Where is the motor nucleus of CN V?
    Tegmentum of pons
  30. Descrive the function, type, deficit, and test of Abducens Nerve (CN VI)
    • Function: Move eye laterally (lateral rectus)
    • Type: Motor
    • Deficit: Eye deviated inwards, horizontal diplopia
    • Test: Planes of gaze: abduction
  31. What is the function, type, deficit, and test of Facial Nerve (CN VII)?
    • Function: Facial expression, lachrymal and salivary glands, stapedius, taste anterior 2/3 of tongue, sensation to external ear
    • Type: Sensory/motor
    • Deficit: Facial weakness, eye closure weakness, hyperacusis, loss of taste anterior 2/3 of tongue
    • Test: Smile, wrinkle forehead
  32. What are the 4 components of CN VII?
    • Branchial motor
    • Visceral motor
    • General sensory
    • Special sensory
  33. Where does CN VII emerge?
    From brainstem at pontomedullary border
  34. CN VII UMN innervation of the face is _______ and the mouth is _______
    bilateral; contralateral
  35. What is Bell's Palsy?
    • LMN lesion to CN VII
    • Damage to facial nucleus or its axons anywhere along the course of the nerve
  36. What are the reflexes for CN VII?
    • Blink Reflex
    • Acousting (Stapedius) Reflex
  37. What are the afferents and efferents to the blink reflex?
    • Afferent: CN II (light), CN V (touch), CN VIII (loud noise)
    • Efferent: CN VII (Blink)
  38. What is the afferent and efferent to the acoustic reflex?
    • Afferent: cochlear component of CN VIII
    • Efferent: CN VII contraction of stapedius

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