(T/F) The most acidic compound will be the one with the strongest electron withdrawing group attached to it.
LiAlH6 reduces acids to what? Alcohols react with COOH to form?
LiAlH4 reduces acids to alcohols. Alcohols react with COOH to form esters.
(T/F) Only primary alcohols can be oxidized to COOH.
(T/F) Increasing the temperature of a rxn increases the reaction rate and an increase in rate constant.
Vapor pressure of any solution increases with increasing temperature. The addition of a solute lowers the vapor pressure of the solvent.
Cleaving bonds and forming bonds. Which releases and which requires energy?
Cleaving bonds requires energy and forming bonds releases energy.
What is the heat of vaporization?
the energy required to convert a liquid at its boiling point temperature to a gas at the same temperature.
Equation for buoyant force?
w = mg = pgv
When an object is totally submerged, the buoyant force is the same at any depth.
How do period and frequency relate?
f = 1/T
Equation for centripetal acceleration:
a = v^2/r
What are the equations for torque?
torque = rl
torque = l(mg)sin(theta)
What is the work-energy theorem?
the work done by gravity is equal to the change in KE
(T/F) The frequency is independent of the amplitude.
How do parallel and series tensions compare to each other?
Tension of strings in parallel equals #strings x tension.
Tension of strings in series equal T.
(T/F) The freezing point depression of a solution only depends upon the concentration of the dissolved particles.
Loss of sympathetic tone leads to what?
2) decrease heart rate (due to overriding parasympathetic system)
What does the tricuspid valve separate? mitral valve?
tricuspid valve separetes the right atrium and right ventricle. mitral valve separates the left ventricle and left atrium.
What does the lympahtic systen function in?
The lymphatic system returns white blood cells to the circulartory system, maintain protein concentrations in the blood, and transports fats from the digestive tract to the circulatory system/
(T/F) Blood pressure is higher than interstitial fluid and has a greater protein concentration.
What is the primary function of lymph nodes?
Detection of foreign substances from the bloodstream.
(T/F) Selection of T cells in the thymus is a process whereby T cells "programmed" to destroy self antigens are eliminated.
(T/F) The immune system can develop antibodies to any non-cell-surface molecules, including protozoans.
Difference between lytic viruses and lysogenic viruses?
Lytic viruses infect the host cell and soon lyse it and release progeny viruses which go on to infect other cells. Lysogenic viruses infect the host cell and enter a dormant stage in which the virus is integrated to the host genome.
What's the function of hCG?
hCG induces the corpus luteum to produce estrogen and progesterone. It is derived from the chorion. It promotes secretion of progesterone secretion during the interval when LH secretion by the pituitary has ceased.
What kind of chains are antibodies made of? Where are the binding sites?
Antibodies consist of two heavy chains and two light chains. Each chain has a constant and variable region. Each antibody has two antigen binding sites, each one consisting of a pocket formed by the interaction of the variable regions of the heavy and light chain.
Which region is usually involved in antigen recognition when something gets stained?
The variable region.
What does adding KCN do to the molcule?
KCN promotes substitution reaction with -CN and INVERTS the molecule.
(T/F) Increasing the size of substitution on alkyl halides decreases the rate of SN2 sub. This effect occurs because increased size of substitutents leads to increased energy of the transition state.
With hindered bases, deprotonation at the least hindered carbon is favored, yielding the less substituted alkenes preferentially.
Are typical halogenation reactions regioselective or nonstereospecific?
Nonstereospecific and form racemic structures.
In the presence of peroxides, HBr adds to C=C via?
A radical mechanism. It proceeds with anti-Markovnikov.
In electorphilic aromatic substitution, the aromatic ring acts as a nucleophile or electrophile?
Nucleophile. It's relatively unreactive due to its aromaticity.
When you have a molecule that acts like a nucleophile, electron-donating substituents increase the rate of reaction, while electron-withdrawing substituents decrease the rate of reaction.
List the ortho and para-directors.
-Cl, Br, I (ring deactivators)
List the meta-directors.
Moderate to mild:
What are bromohydrins?
Compounds in which a bromine atom and a hydroxyl group are present on ADJACENT carbon atoms.
In what scenario would there be the least regioselectivity upon addition (i.e. HBr addition)?
When both carbons are equally substituted --> both possible carboocations would be approximately equally stable.
List in order of increasing reactivity for an addition reaction (to an alkene): HI, HBr, HCl.
HCl < HBr < HI
HI is most reactive since it is the strongest acid so it will protonate
the most quickly. Also, I⁻ is the best/most stable nucleophile.
In conjugated dienes, the C-C single bonds result from the σ overlap of ______ orbitals on both carbons.
What does it mean to say an atom is sp² hybridized?
It means that the atom has 3 equivalent orbitals and a fourth unhybridized p orbital.
According to Markovnikov's rule, the acidic protein will add to the _________ substituted carbon.
LEAST substituted carbon since it will form the most stable carbonium ion (carbocation).
How are free radical halogenation reactions INHIBITED?
Alkyl radical will react with O₂ to form a less reactive peroxy radical (R-O-O⋅)
R⋅ + O=O --> R-O-O⋅
*reaction is REVERSIBLE!
List the alkyl radicals in order of increasing stability.
Which is more reactive and less selective, bromine or chlorine? Which is more selective and less reactive?
Br₂ is more selective and LESS reactive.
Cl₂ is less selective and MORE reactive.
What are nucleophiles?
Species that have UNSHARED pairs of electrons or π bonds and often a - charge or partial - charge.
"Nucleus-seeking" or "nucleus-loving" molecules.
e- donors = LEWIS BASES
Define polarizability (and explain its relation to nucleophilicity trends).
How easy it is for the e- surrounding an atom to be distorted.
As you go DOWN any group in a periodic table, atoms becomes LARGER (increasing radius) and thus MORE polarizable = more nucleophilic.
What are electrophiles? What is electrophilicity?
Electrophiles = e⁻ deficient species; full or partial + charges and LOVE e⁻
Electrophilicity = measure of how strong an electrophile is.
e- acceptors = LEWIS ACIDS
List the features of an SN2 Reaction.
1. Kinetics: rate = k[nucleo][electro]
2. Mechanism: 1-step
3. Rearrangement: NONE (but we do have a pentavalent carbon!)
4. Reactivity: 1°> 2°> 3° b/c we want the least steric hindrance for a backside attack!
5. Solvent: aprotic (polar) - keeps OH⁻ in soln
6. Stereochem: INVERSION of configuration
7. Nucleophile: small (easier for backside attack) and strong.
How do you calculate the rate of an SN2 reaction?
BIMOLECULAR REACTION (that's why we have the 2 in SN2 reaction)
rate = k[nucleophile][electrophile]
List the features of a SN1 reaction.
Unimolecular, 2 -step
1. Kinetics: rate = k[electro]
2. Mechanism: 2-step
3. Rearrangement: YES b/c we have a C+ (1,2-hydride shift or methyl shift)
4. Reactivity: 3°> 2°> 1°> CH₃
5. Solvent: protic solvent (b/c you want to stabilize the C+!)
6. Stereochem: racemic
7. Nucleophile: weak b/c C+ wants a - charge!
How do you calculate the rate of an SN1 reaction?
UNIMOLECULAR REACTION (that's why we have the 1 in SN1 reaction)
rate = k[electrophile]
Describe an E1 reaction.
1. Kinetics: rate = k[electro]
2. Mechanism: 2-steps
3. Rearrangement: Yes, b/c of C+ formation
4. Reactivity: 3°> 2°> 1°> methyl
5. Stereochem: most substituted double bond will form (ZAITSEV PRODUCT!) b/c its the most stable.
6. Solvent: protic
7. Conditions: weak base b/c electrophile wants to be attacked! High temp to induce bond formation.
Describe an E2 reaction.
1. Kinetics: rate = [nucleo][electro]
2. Mechanism: 1-step
3. Rearrangement: NO
4. Reactivity: 3°> 2°> 1°> methyl b/c you want to form the most substituted double bond!
5. Stereochem: ANTI-PERIPLANAR (otherwise reaction cannot occur, you can rotate the bonds!)
6. Solvent: aprotic
7. Conditions: strong base (i.e. tertbutoxide or LDA)
What kind of bases must be used to get elimination products (vs substitution products)?
STRONG bases such as OH⁻ or OR⁻
Which groups INCREASE the acidity of substituted phenols? Decrease acidity?
Increase: e- withdrawing groups (i.e. nitro group)
Decreae: e- donating groups (i.e. methyl group)
Reactions of Alcohols w/ Phosphorous Halides:
What are the reagents PBr₃ or PCl₃ used to form?
Alkyl bromides or alkyl chlorides
*Must add 3 alcohols since there are 3 Br and 3 Cl
Reactions of Alcohols w/ Thionyl Chloride:
What is SOCl₂ (thionyl chloride) used to synthesize?
Formation of an amine is a (SN1 or SN2) reaction.
Do esters only react with strong acids?
What is an elimination reaction? (in terms of sigma and pi bonds)
Lose two sigma bonds and gain one pi bond.
Which reactions will have MARKOVNIKOV regiochemistry? (Which are Markovnikov additions?)
1. H-X addition across a double bond (alkene)
2. Acid-catalyzed Hydration of alkenes
Which reactions will have ANTI-MARKOVNIKOV regiochemistry? (Which are anti-Markovnikov additions?)
1. Hydroboration (BH₃/H₂O₂, OH⁻)
2. HBr addition in the presence of peroxides (ROOR)
Which reactions will have anti/trans stereochemistry/addition? (racemic)
Mutualism is an interaction between two organisms where both species benefit from the relationship.
Symbiosis is an interaction where at least one of the species benefit from the relationship.
Commensalism is an interaction where one species benefits and the other is unaffected.
Parasitism is an interaction where one benefits and the other is harmed.
What kind of pathway do the PS and S nervous systems rely on
2-neuron motor pathway away from the spinal cord and a 2-neuron sensory pathway toward the spinal cord.
What is blood volume regulated by?
Blood volume is regulated by the kidneys and correlates directly with blood pressure.
How does the kidney respond when there is a decrease in blood pressure?
The kidney releases renin which converts ATI to ATII using ACE. ATII stimulate the adrenal cortex to release aldosterone, which in turn acts on the kidneys to increase sodium and fluid retention. This increases blood volume and blood pressure.
Difference in chemical structure of ATP and nucleotides.
ATP contains a ribose sugar, a nitrogen base, and 3 phosphate groups. Nucleotides are the building blocks of DNA. They containa ribose sugar, a nitrogen base, but a single phosphate group.
Gas exchange occurs by simple diffusion down the concentration gradient.
nose/mouth --> pharynx --> larynx --> trachea --> main bronchi
Where is deoxygenated blood found?
venous system, vena cava, right atrium and ventrical, pulmonary artery
Explain right and left shifts on oxygen dissociation curve.
The shift to the right of the O2 dissociation curve reflects a decrease in affinity of hemoglobin for oxygen, which promotes oxygen release to tissue.
The shift to the left of the curve increases the affinity of hemoglobin for oxygen. (ex. fetal hemoglobin)
Cause of pulmonary edema?
accumulation of fluid in the lungs. edema can result from an increase in the hydrostatic pressure when the heart is really pumping hard. edema can also be cause by an increase in the capillary wall permeability, which allows fluid to escape out of the capillaries into the lungs.
increasing the number of pulmonary capillaries would increase the overall area and the number of pathways that pulmonary blood can flow through: this would decrease resistance. Narrowing blood vessels and the mitral valve will increase resistance.
The glomerulus/Bowman's capsule junction is the site of renal filter that rids the blood of metabolic waste. The loop of Henle is the major site for water reabsorption. The collecting duct is regulated by the antidiuretic hormone (ADH), which stimulate water reabsorption.
What do parietal cells release? Chief cells?
HCl by parietal cells.
Pepsin by chief cells.
Antibodies are a type of B-cell (converts into plasma cell when activated)
T-cells are part of the cell-mediated immunity. Cell-mediated immunity is a specific immune response that does not involve antibodies (antibodies are part of the humoral respose) and is directly against viral infections and cancer.
What regulates resp rate?
B cells are a part of the innate immune system and are not specific, killing any and all cells that appear foreign.
T-lymphocyte, especially help T cells, controls the immune system response to every antigen. without t-cells there is no immune response.
What are the two varieties of lymphocytes?
B-cell and T-cell
EM waves are _________________ waves.
What is the formula that relates speed (v) and the index of refraction (n)?
v = c/n
The angle of incidence always equals...
the angle of reflection
Snell's law implies that a light beam entering a medium with greater refractive index (n) than the incident medium will...
refract TOWARD the normal.
if n increases than sinθ decreases!
What is RIPVUN?
Positive image distance
Negative image distance
The image of an object placed outside the focal point of a concave mirror will be....
real and inverted
The image of an object placed in front of a convex mirror will be...
virtual and upright
Convex mirrors have ____________ focal lengths.
Concave mirrors have _____________ focal lengths.
What's a formula that relates magnification (m), object distance, image distance, object height, and image height?
m = -di/do = hi/ho
virtual images are always...
Real images are always...
What is lens power?
P = 1/f (measured in diopter)
Total internal reflection (TIR) only occurs for values GREATER than the...
Can convex mirrors form real images?
No.Only when the image distance is positive.
What is a longitundinal wave?
Particles are parallel to direction in which waves travel.
What kind of wave is a sound wave?
Compressions bersus refractions.
Compressions are regions of high pressure. refractions are regions of low pressure
How do you calculate speed of sound wave?
V = fλ
in terms of sound speed, the greater the medium's resistance to resistance...
the faster the sound waves travel.
in terms of speed, the freater the medium's density...
the slower the sound waves travel
sound travels the slowest in which medium? in which medium does it travel the fastest?
slowest in gas and fastest in solid
if both ends of a tube are open, how do we calculate the wavelength of a standing wave? the freq?
wavelength = 2L/n, f = nv/2L
if both ends of the tube is closed, how do we calculate the wavelength of a standing wave? the freq?
wavelength = 4L/n, f = nv/4L
what is the intensity of a sound?
the intensity of a sound wave is the energy it transmits per second (power) per unit area.
how do you calculate the intensity level?
β = 10log₁₀(I/I₀)
What is the Doppler Effect?
The change in perceived freq (and wavelength) of a wave due to relative motion between teh source of a wave and the detector. When the source and detector in relative motion TOWARDS each other, the detected frequency is HIGHER than the emitted freq. When the source and the detector are in relative motion AWAY from each other, the detected freq is LOWER than the emitted freq.
When a source of waves APPROACHES a detector (or vice versa)...
when a source of wave moces away from a detector...
whatis the equation for the doppler effect?
fD = fs (v +/-vD)/(v +/- vs)
sound waves travel most slowly in medium that is...
low resistance to compression and high density
an increase in _________ of sound wave can result in an increase in its decibel level.
the doppler effect can also apply to light.
light approaching towards you =
light mmoving away from you =
wave speed is _____________ of freq and wavelength.
as speed of the wave increases, what happens to the wavelength?
higher harmonic number give ________ wavelengths
Do rbc enter the lymphatic system?
No, rbc stay within the blood vessel. wbc can escape
are lymphatic capillaries more permeable to proteins than blood capillaries?
yes, lymphatic capillaries are meant to uptake proteins while blood capillaries are meant to retain them
where does exchange of material between blood and tissue occur?
all happens in the capillaries
what is the exception to the "rule" that blood passes through only one set of capillaries?
what is diastole?
the ventricles are relaxed, and blood is able to flow into them from the atria.
what is the systole?
period of time during which teh ventricles are contracting, begining at the "lub" sound and ending at the "dub"
what is the pacemaker of the heart?
SA node. they depolarize due to Ca2+ influx
what is the effect of ach on teh sa node?
ach inhibits depolarization by binding to the receptors on the cells of the SA node.
what 3 factors reduce hemoglobin's affinity for O2? what is this collectively called?
1. decrease pH
2. increase temp
3. increase partial pressure of CO2.
where are mhc I proteins found? what is their role?
found on teh surface of every nucleated cell in the body. they pick up peptides from the inside of the cell and display them on the cell surface. They allow T cells to monitor cellular contents.
where are mhc II proteins found? what is their role?
they are found on antigen-presenting cells (APCs): which include macrophages and B cells.
F = -kx
Since we are doing work AGAINST the spring, the spring stores...
potential enerfy called elastic potential energy
Elastic potential energy equations?
PE = 1/2 k x^2
At the equilibrium position, x = 0...
PE = 0, but MAX KE
state the conservation of energy for a spring.
PEmax = KEmax
½kA² = ½mv²(A = x)
An oscillation of the block (on a spring) is known as a...
what is a period?
the period is the amt of time required for the block to complete one cycle.
What are the equations for frequency and period for a spring?
f = (1/2π)(√k/m)
T = 2π(√k/m)
What are the equations for frequency and period for a simple pendulum?
f = (1/2π)(√g/l)
T = 2π(√l/g)
What are tranverse waves?
a wave that travels in a direction that is perpendicular to the direction in which the medium is vibrating
What is amplitude?
Amplitude is the maximum displacement from equilibrium.
For a transverse wave on a rope (or a stretched rope), the speed of the wave is...
v = √(tension/linear density)
State the 2 Big Rules for Waves.
Big Rule 1: The speed of a wave is determined by the type of wave and the characteristics of the medium; NOT the frequency!
Big Rule 2: When a wave passes into another medium, its speed changes but its frequency does NOT change.
How do we calculate the standing-wave WAVELENGTHS for 2 FIXED ENDS?
λn = (2L)/n
first harmonic is usually called the ...
how do we calculate teh standing wave frequencies for 2 fixed ends?
fn = (nv)/2L
How can we solve for the harmonic wavelength of a STANDING WAVE?
λ = 2L/n
calculate linear density?
the greater the harmonic number, the shorter the...
What is ALWAYS conserved during a collision (inelastic OR elastic)?
MOMENTUM!!∴p before = p afterInelastic collision: KE is NOT conserved, only momentum is!∴mv = (M+m)v'
An important characteristic of SHM is that frequency is ______________ of the amplitude.
in a pendulum, the maximum tension occurs at...
the bottom of the string/rod
where does the image form in a high myopic person?
in front of the retina cuz the retina has been stretched back
Arterial pressure is higher than the pressure on the venous side of the capillaries. Thus, hydrostatic pressure tends to drive fluids out of the blood and into the tissues on the arterial side and back out of the tissues on the venous side.
Osmotic pressure is greater in the plasma than in the interstitial fluid, because plasma has a much higher protein concentration; thus, osmotic pressure tends to draw fluid into the blood, out of the tissue
Antibodies, B cells, and T cells are all involved in specific immunity and are not part of the first line of defense.
Antimicrobial chemicals such as acids, lysozyme, etc. are nonspecific and are part of the first line of defense.
(T/F) MHC I is recognized by killer T cells and does not play a role in the function of helper T cells.
Peritubular capillaries wind around the nephron tubule and help with reclaiming reabsorbed substances and maintaining the salt concentration in the medulla. They do not function in blood filtration.
Where does aldosterone work on?
Aldosterone increases sodium uptake, and water reabsorption along with it, in the distal convoluted tubule and the collecting duct.