Ch. 34 Infection Prevention & Control

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Ch. 34 Infection Prevention & Control
2011-02-17 22:54:43
Safety Infection Prevention

CH. 34
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  1. Clients in all health care settings are at risk for acquiring infections because of
    • 1. lower resistance to infectious microorganisms
    • 2. increased exposure to numbers & types of disease-causing microorganisms
    • 3. invasive procedures
  2. In acute care or ambulatory care facilities, clients can be exposed to
    pathogens (some of which may be resistant to most antibiotics)
  3. In all settings, clients & their families need to be able to recognize
    sources of infections & institute protective measures
  4. Client teaching needs to include
    • 1. basic info on infections
    • 2. various modes of transmission
    • 3. methods of prevention appropriate to their care needs
  5. Health care workers protect themselves from contact with infectious material, sharps injury, and/or exposure to a communicable disease by
    • using knowledge of the infectious process
    • appropriate personal protective equipment (PPE)
  6. Which diseases require a greater emphasis on infection prevention & control techniques?
    Hepatitis B, Hepatitis C, HIV, AIDS, TB & multidrug-resistant organisms
  7. Infection
    the entry & multiplication of an organism (infectious agent) in a host
  8. pathogen
    infectious agent
  9. colonization
    when a microorganism is present or invades a host, grows and/or multiplies but does not cause infection
  10. An infectious disease
    may not pose a risk for transmission
  11. Illnesses like viral meningitis or pneumonia
    • are infectious
    • are possibly serious for client
    • do not pose a risk to others, including caregivers
  12. if the infectious disease can be transmitted directly from one person to another
    communicable disease
  13. if the pathogens multiply & cause clinical signs & symptoms
    symptomatic infection
  14. if clinical signs & symptoms are not present, illness is termed
  15. A communicable disease that can be asymptomatic
    Hep C
  16. Infection occurs in a cycle that depends on the presence of all of the following elements:
    • infectious agent (pathogen)
    • resevoir (source for pathogen growth)
    • portal of exit (from reservoir)
    • mode of transmission
    • portal of entry (to host)
    • a susceptible host
  17. Microorganisms include
    bacteria, viruses, fungi, & protozoa
  18. Microorganisms on the skin are either
    resident (normal flora) or transient flora
  19. Resident (normal flora)
    • permanent residents of skin
    • survive & multiply without causing illness
    • major part of body's protection
    • covers entire exterior of body & protects against pathogens
    • important to retain & maintain
  20. transient microorganisms
    attach to skin with contact w/ another person or object
  21. potential for microorganisms or parasites to cause disease depends on the following factors:
    • sufficient # of organisms (dose)
    • virulence (ability to survive in the host or outsidebody)
    • ability to enter & survive in host
    • susceptibility of the host (host resistance)
  22. sufficient # of organisms
  23. ability to survive in the host or outside the body
  24. susceptibility of the host
    host resistance
  25. impaired immune system
  26. Resident skin microorganisms can cause serious infection when
    • surgery or other invasive procedures allow them to enter deep tissues or when a client is severely immunocompromised
    • *Resident flora is not virulent
  27. a place where a pathogen can survive but may or may not multiply

    Ex: Hep A survives in shellfish but does not multiply, Pseudomonas organisms may survive & multiply nebulizer reservoirs
  28. most common resevoir
    human body
  29. persons who show no symptoms of illness but who have pathogens on or in their bodies that can be transferred to others
  30. To thrive, organisms require
    a proper environment (including appropriate food, oxygen, water, temp, pH, & light)
  31. Microorganisms require nourishment.
    Clostridium perfringens (causes gas gangrene) thrives on ____________
    Escherichia coli consume ____________
    • organic matter
    • undigested foodstuff in bowel
  32. aerobic bacteria require
    • oxygen for survival and for multiplication sufficient to cause disease
    • **aerobic organisms cause more infections in humans when compared to anaerobic
    • **ex: staphylococcus aureus and strains of streptococcus organisms
  33. anaerobic bacteria thrive
    • where little or no free oxygen is available
    • **cause infections deep within pleural cavity, joint, or deep sinus tract
    • **bacteria that cause tetanus, gas gangrene, & botulism are anaerobes
  34. Clostridium difficile
    an organism that causes antibiotic-induced diarrhea
  35. Bacteria: Escherichia coli
    Major Reservoir: ________
    Major Infections/Diseases: __________
    • colon
    • gastroenteritis, UTI
  36. Bacteria: Staphylococcus aureus
    Major Reservoir: ___________
    Major Infections/Disease: _________
    • Skin, hair, anterior nares, mouth
    • wound infection, pneumonia, food poisoning, cellulitis
  37. Bacteria: Streptococcus (beta-hemolytic group A) organisms
    Major Reservoir: ____________
    Major Infections/Diseases: __________
    • Oropharynx, skin, perianal area
    • "Strep throat", rheumatic fever, scarlet fever, impetigo, wound infection
  38. Bacteria: Streptococcus (beta-hemolytic group B) organisms
    Major Reservoir: ___________
    Major Infection/Diseases: ________
    • adult genitalia
    • UTI, wound infection, postpartum sepsis, neonatal sepsis
  39. Bacteria: Mycobacterium tuberculosis
    Major Reservoir: ___________
    Major Infection/Disease: __________
    • droplet nuclei from lungs, larynx
    • tuberculosis
  40. Bacteria: Neisseria gonorrhoeae
    Major Reservoir: __________
    Major Infection/Diseases: __________
    • Genitourinary tract, rectum, mouth
    • Gonorrhea, pelvic inflammatory disease, infectious arthritis, conjunctivitis
  41. Bacteria: Rickettsia rickettsii
    Major Reservoir:____________
    Major Infection/Diseases:____________
    • wood tick
    • Rocky Mountain spotted fever
  42. Bacteria: Staphylococcus epidermis
    Major Reservoir: __________
    Major Infection/Diseases: __________
    • Skin
    • Wound infection, bacteremia
  43. Virus: Hepatitis A
    Major Reservoir: ____________
    Major Infection/Diseases: __________
    • feces
    • Hepatitis A
  44. Virus: Hepatits B
    Major Reservoir: __________
    Major Infection/diseases: _________
    • blood & certain body fluids, sexual content
    • Hepatits B
  45. Virus: Hepatitis C
    Major Reservoir: __________
    Major Infection/Disease: _________
    • blood, certain body fluids, sexual contact
    • Hepatits C
  46. Virus: Herpes simplex virus (type 1)
    Major Reservoir: _________
    Major infection/disease: _________
    • Lesions of mouth or skin, saliva, genitalia
    • cold sores, aseptic meningitis, STD, herpetic whitlow
  47. Virus: Human Immunodeficiency virus (HIV)
    Major Reservoir: ___________
    Major Infection/Disease: ________
    • blood, semen, vaginal secretions via sexual contact
    • acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS)
  48. Fungi: Aspergillus organisms
    Major Reservoir: ________
    Major Infection/Disease: __________
    • soil, dust, mouth, skin, colon, genital tract
    • Aspergillosis, pneumonia, sepsis
  49. Fungi: Candida albicans
    Major Reservoir: __________
    Major Infection/Disease: _________
    • mouth, skin, colon, genital tract
    • Candidiasis, pneumonia, sepsis
  50. Protozoa: Plasmodium falciparum
    Major Reservoir: _________
    Major Infection/Disease: ________
    • blood
    • Malaria
  51. Most organisms require water or moisture for survival. A frequent place for microorganisms is
    the moist drainage from a surgical wound
  52. spore
    • a bacteria that is resistant to drying
    • spore-forming bacteria include organisms like those that cause anthrax, botulism, and tetanus
  53. Microorganisms can live only in certain temp ranges. Each species of bacteria has a specific temp at which it grows best. The ideal temp for most human pathogens is
    • 20 to 43 degrees Celsius (68 to 109 degrees F)
    • some can survive temp extremes that would be fatal to humans
  54. bactericidal
    a temperature or chemical that destroys bacteria
  55. bacteriostasis
    growth and reproduction of bacteria?
  56. acidity of an environment determines
    the viability of microorganisms
  57. most microorganisms prefer an environment within a pH range of
  58. bacteria thrive in urine with an
    alkaline pH
  59. most organisms cannot survive the acid environment of the
  60. Acid-reducing medications (antacids and H2 blockers) may cause an __________________, which can contribute to _________________.
    • overgrowth of gastrointestinal organisms
    • health care-associated pneumonia in a client receiving these meds
  61. Microorganisms thrive in ____________ environments such as those ____________.
    • dark
    • under dressings and within body cavities
  62. after microorganisms find a site to grow and multiply, they must find a ____________ if they are to enter another host and cause disease
    portal of exit
  63. portals of exit include:
    sites such as blood, skin & mucous membranes, respiratory tract, genitourinary tract, gastrointestinal tract, and transplacental (mother to fetus)
  64. the presence of purulent drainage is a
    potential portal of exit
  65. skin may be considered a portal of exit because any ____________ may allow pathogens to exit the body
    break in the integrity of skin and mucous membranes
  66. Pathogens that infect the respiratory tract (like Mycobacterium tuberculosis or influenza virus) can be released from the body when ______________
    an infected person sneezes or coughs
  67. clients with artificial airways such as tracheostomy or endotracheal tubes, organisms easily exit the ____________ through these devices when the device is ________________
    • respiratory tract
    • manipulated or sunctioned
  68. Normally urine is sterile. However, when a client has a ____________, microorganisms exit during urination or through urinary diversions such as ____________
    • UTI
    • ileostomies and suprapubic drains
  69. The _____________ is one of the most bacterially contaminated sites of the human body, but most of the organisms are ______________.
    • mouth
    • normal flora
  70. Organisms that are normal flora in one person can be _________ in another
  71. Gastrointestinal tracts include
    mouth, bowel elimination, drainage of bile via surgical wounds, or drainage tubes
  72. HIV is present in much ___________ numbers in semen than in female vaginal secretion
  73. Blood is normally a sterile body fluid, but in the cases of _________ such as __________________ it becomes a reservoir for pathogens
    • communicable diseases
    • Hep B or C, HIV
  74. each disease has a specific mode of
  75. vector
    • something that transmits a virus
    • ex: some types of encephalitis are transmitted by infected mosquitos, the mosquito serves as a vector transmitting the virus when it bites the host
  76. Varicella zoster (chicken pox) may be spread by
    the airborne route in droplet nuclei or by direct contact (some microorganisms may be transmitted by more than one route)
  77. The major route of transmission for pathogens identified in the health care setting is the
    unwashed hands of the health care worker
  78. organisms enter the body through ____________ they use for exiting
    the same routes
  79. Factors that reduce the body's defenses __________ the chances of pathogens entering the body
  80. whether a person acquires an infection depends on ______________ to an infectious agent
  81. ______________ depends on the individual degree of resistance to a pathogen (immune response)
  82. The more _________ an organism, the _________ the dose, the more likely a person will develop an infection
    • virulent
    • greater
  83. Some of the factors that influence a person's susceptibility (resistance) include
    age, nutritional status, presence of chronic disease, trauma, and smoking
  84. Organisms with resistance to key antibiotics are becoming ____________ in health care settings, but especially ___________
    • more common
    • acute settings
  85. the resistance to key antibiotics is associated with
    the frequent and sometimes inappropriate use of antibiotics over the years in all settings (acute care, ambulatory care, clinics, and long term care)
  86. what are the modes of transmission?
    Contact, Airborne, Vehicles, Vector
  87. the three contact routes of transmission are
    direct, indirect, and droplet
  88. person-to-person (fecal,oral) or physical contact between source and susceptible host (touching client feces and then touching your inner mouth or consuming contaminated food) is what kind of contact
  89. personal contact of susceptible host with contaminated inanimate object (e.g. needles or sharps objects, dressings, environment)
    indirect contact
  90. large particles that travel up to 3 feet and come in contact with susceptible host (coughing, sneezing, or talking)
  91. droplet nuclei, or residue or evaporated droplets suspended in air (coughing, sneezing,) or carried on dust particles
  92. contaminated items, water, drugs, solutions, blood, food (improperly handled, stored, or cooked; fresh or thawed meats) are what type of contact?
  93. external mechanical transfer (flies, mosquitos, louse, flea, tick)
  94. When the client acquires an infection observe for
    signs and symptoms of infection and take appropriate actions to prevent its spread
  95. The severity of the client's illness depends on the _________ of the infection, the ___________ of the microorganisms, ____________ of the organism , and the ____________ of the host.
    • extent
    • pathogenicity
    • dose
    • susceptibility
  96. example of a localized infection
    wound infection
  97. if an infection is localized the patient usually experiences ___________ symptoms
  98. an infection that affects the entire body instead of just a single organ or part is
    systemic (can become fatal if undetected and untreated)
  99. the course of the infect influences the
    level of nursing care provided
  100. supportive therapy to bolster the defenses against the infectious process includes
    providing adequate nutrition and rest
  101. if a nurse has an open area too large to be covered with a dressing,
    the nurse should not perform client care procedures
  102. normal body flora that reside inside and outside of the body protect
    a person from pathogens
  103. linings of the nasal passageways act to
    prevent organisms from entering the lungs
  104. a protective reaction that serves to neutralize pathogens and repair body cells
    inflammatory response
  105. Each ____________ has defense mechanisms that work to prevent exposure to infection
    organ system
  106. What are the nonspecific defenses that protect against microorganisms regardless of prior exposure?
    normal flora, body system defenses, and inflammation
  107. the immune system is composed of ______________ that help the body resist disease
    specific cells
  108. There are _________ and ________ responses of the immune system
    • non specific
    • specific defenses against specific pathogens
  109. a person normally excretes ___________ of microbes daily through the intestines
  110. normal flora of the ____________ exist in large numbers without causing illness
    large intestine
  111. normal flora excrete __________ within the intestine walls
    antibacterial substances
  112. the skin's normal flora exert a protective, bactericidal action that
    kills organisms landing on the skin
  113. the use of broad-spectrum antibiotics for the treatment of infection can lead to
  114. develops when broad-spectrum antibiotics eliminate a wide range of normal flora organisms, not jus those causing infection
  115. What three organ systems are easily accessible to microorganisms
    skin, respiratory tract, and gastrointestinal tract
  116. hairlike projections in the airways of lungs that rhythmically beat to move mucus or cellular debris up to pharynx to be expelled
  117. the body's cellular response to injury, infection, or irritation
  118. a protective vascular reaction that delivers fluid, blood blood products, and nutrients to an area of injury
  119. interval between entrance of pathogen and appearance of first symptoms
    incubation period
  120. interval from onset of nonspecific signs and symptoms (malaise, low-grade fever, fatigue) to more specific symptoms. During the time, microorganisms grow and multiply and client may be capable of spreading disease to others.
    prodromal stage
  121. interval when client manifest signs and symptoms specific to type of infection
    illness stage
  122. interval when acute symptoms of infection disappear (length of recovery depends on severity of infection and client's host resistance; recovery may take several days to months)
  123. What are the stages of the course of infection
    • Incubation Period
    • Prodromal Stage
    • Illness Stage
    • Convalescence
  124. necrotic
    dead tissues
  125. signs of localized inflammation may include
    swelling, redness, heat, pain, tenderness, and loss of function to affected body part
  126. signs of systemic inflammation
    fever, leukocytosis, malaise, anorexia, nausea, vomiting, lymph node enlargement, or organ failure
  127. the inflammatory response may be triggered by
    • physical agents (trauma, temp extremes, radiation)
    • chemical agents (external & internal irritants such as harsh poisons or gastric acid)
    • microorganisms
  128. What response is this?
    1. Vascular and cellular responses
    2. Formation of inflammatory exudates
    3. Tissue repair
    inflammatory response
  129. exudates
    fluid and cells that are discharged from cells or blood vessels (pus or serum)
  130. acute inflammation is an immediate response to
    cellular injury
  131. the redness of inflammation is caused by
    the increase in local blood flow near the location of the injury (occurs through vasodilation)
  132. localized warmth at site of inflammation is caused by
    greater volume of blood at site
  133. local vasodilation delivers_________ and ________ to injured tissues
    • blood
    • white blood cells
  134. kinin, vasoactive amines, prostaglandins, and certain complement components that play a major role in inflammation
    serum proteins
  135. serum proteins serve to increase
  136. these are present at the site of infection and serve as the first line of defense from microorganisms
  137. swelling
  138. pain of inflammation is caused by
    increased pressure on nerve endings
  139. injury causes tissue damage and possibly necrosis, as a result the body releases chemical mediators that increase ______________; as a result, fluid, protein, & cells enter interstitial spaces; this accumulation of fluid causes localized _____________
    • permeability of small blood vessels
    • edema (swelling)
  140. the eyes defense mechanism against infection
    tearing and blinking
  141. defense mechanism of respiratory tract
    cilia lining upper airway, coated by mucus; macrophages
  142. defense mechanisms of urinary tract against infections
    • flushing action of urine flow
    • intact multilayered epithelium
  143. defense mechanisms of GI tract against infections
    • acidity of gastric secretions
    • rapid peristalsis in small intestine
  144. defense mechanism of vagina against infection
    normal flora causing vaginal secretions to achieve low pH (at puberty)
  145. defense mechanisms of mouth against infection
    • intact mutlilayered mucosa
    • saliva
  146. defense mechanisms of skin against infection
    • intact, multi-layered surface
    • shedding of outer layer of skin cells
    • sebum
  147. contains fatty acid that kills some bacteria
  148. body's first line of defense against infection
  149. a process that involves the destruction and absorption of bacteria
  150. cellular response of inflammation involves
    WBCs arriving at the site
  151. which WBCs specialize in process of phagocytosis
    neutrophils and monocytes
  152. an increase in the number of circulating WBCs ( the body's response to WBCs leaving blood vessels)
  153. normal serum WBC: ________
    during inflammation: _________
    • 5000-10,000/mm3
    • 15,000-20,000/mm3 and higher
  154. Fever is caused by phagocytic release of ___________ from bacterial cells that cause a rise in the ______________ set point
    • pyrogens
    • hypothalamic
  155. Exudate may be ____________ , _________ , or ________.
    • serous
    • sanguineous
    • purulent
  156. serous
    clear, like plasma
  157. sanguineous
    containing red blood cells
  158. purulent
    containing WBCs and bacteria
  159. fibrinogen
    a plasma protein (that with platelets forms a meshlike matrix at the site of inflammation to prevent its spread)
  160. tissue that is not as strong as tissue collagen and assumes the form of scar tissue when inflammation is chronic
    granulation tissue
  161. Health care-associated infections (HAIs) are formerly called what
    nosocomial or health care-acquired infections
  162. infections that result from delivery of health services in a health care facility
    Health care-associated infections (HAIs)
  163. a type of HAI from a diagnostic or therapeutic procedure
    Iatrogenic infection (ex: after a GI endoscopy, client developed P. aeruginosa)
  164. HAIs are either ______ or _________.
    • Exogenous
    • Endogenous
  165. organism that is present outside the client (HAI)
    postoperative infection
  166. organism that are part of normal flora or virulent organisms residing that could cause infection (HAI); can occur when part of the client's flora becomes altered and an overgrowth results (ex: client is placed on several antibiotics in hospital setting and develops an infection)
    endogenous infection
  167. the major sites for HAIs include
    • surgical or traumatic wounds
    • urinary & respiratory tracts
    • bloodstream
  168. TJC has listed several national safety goals focusing on care of older adults, such as
    • influenza and pneumonia vaccine
    • preventing pressure ulcers
  169. an age-related decline in immune system function
    immune senescence
  170. older adults are less capable of producing ___________ to combat challenges to the immune system
  171. risks associated with the development of HAIs in older clients
    • poor nutrition
    • unintentional weight loss
    • low serum albumin levels
  172. after age 70, older adults appear likely to produce _________ that attack parts of the body itself instead of infections
  173. infants have immature defenses against infection because
    they are born only with the antibodies provided by the mother (their own immune system is not capable of producing the immunoglobulins and WBCs to adequately fight some infections)
  174. breast fed infants have greater what?
    immunity than bottle fed infants (they receive antibodies thru the milk)
  175. what are the most common cause of communicable illness in young or middle-age adults
  176. what infection in children and adolescents has been decreased by 98% since the major effort to vaccinate all children in 2000?
    hepatitis B
  177. the immune response, particularly ____________, declines with age
    cell-mediated immunity
  178. when protein intake is inadequate as a result of poor diet or debilitating disease, the rate of ______________ exceeds that of _______________/
    • protein breakdown
    • tissue synthesis
  179. what nutrients are important for the body's defenses against infection and impairs wound healing?
    proteins, carbohydrates, and fats
  180. the body responds to emotional or physical stress by the
    general adaptation syndrome
  181. the basal metabolic rate increases as the body uses energy stores
    alarm stage
  182. infected drainage may be what color
    yellow, green, or brown (depending on the pathogen)
  183. Nursing Assessment Questions relating to infections
    • Risk factors
    • Possible existing infections
    • Med history
    • Stressors
  184. lab value for WBC cournt
  185. Lab value for erythrocyte sedimentation rate
    • up to 15mm/hr for men
    • up to 20 mm/hr for women
  186. lab value for iron level
  187. Differential Count (% of each type of WBC)
    • 55-70%
    • 20-40%
    • 5-10%
    • 1-4%
    • 0.5-1.5%
  188. a risk for infection is a WBC of __________
    less than 5,000/mm3
  189. potential sites of infection
    • IV catheter in right forearm (in place for 3 days)
    • foley catheter draining cloudy amber-colored urine
  190. to identify the causative organism, the nurse collects
    specimens of body fluids such as sputum or drainage from infected body sites for cultures
  191. systemic infections require measures to prevent
    complications of fever
  192. a client's increased metabolic rate with infection requires an
    adequate nutritional intake
  193. base efforts to minimize the onset and spread of infection on the principles of
    aseptic technique
  194. the absence of pathogenic (disease-producing) microorganisms
  195. practices/procedures that assist in reducing the risk for infection
    asepsis technique
  196. the two types of aseptic technique are
    medical and surgical asepsis
  197. procedures used to reduce the number of organisms present and prevent the transfer of organisms
    (hand hygiene, using gloves)
    medical asepsis (clean technique)
  198. object that becomes unsterile or unclean is considered
  199. to prevent and control infection and its spread
    standard precautions
  200. using an instant alcohol hand antiseptic
    hand hygiene
  201. act of washing hands with soap and water
    hand washing duh
  202. ________________ is the removal of all soil (organic & inorganic material) from objects & surfaces; generally involves water & mechanical action with detergents or enzymatic products
  203. detergents should have a ______________ pH
  204. failure to follow the manufacturer's recommendations transfers liability from the ___________ to the ________ if an infection occurs from improper processing
    manufacturer, health care facility or agency
  205. Cleaning Equipment:
    When first rinsing the equipment, you use what temp of water? When rinsing the equipment after cleaning, you use what temp of water?
    • cold
    • warm
  206. a process that eliminates many or all microorganisms, with the exception of bacterial spores, from inanimate objects
    disinfection (there are two types)
  207. what are the two types of disinfection?
    • disinfection of surfaces
    • high-level disinfection (endoscopes/bronchoscopes)
  208. what do you use to accomplish disinfecting
    • a chemical disinfectant or wet pasteurization (used for respiratory therapy equipment)
    • ex of disinfectants are alcohols, chlorides, glutaraldehydes, hydrogen peroxide, and phenols
  209. the complete elimination or destruction of all microorganisms, including spores
  210. what are the most common sterilizing agents?
    • steam under pressure
    • ethylene oxide (ETO) gas (poses potential risk to staff; exposure should be monitored)
    • hydrogen peroxide plasma
    • chemicals
  211. what are the three categories of device classification for sterilization, disinfection, and cleaning?
    • Critical Items
    • Semicritical Items
    • Noncritical Items
  212. critical items must be _________
  213. semicritical items must be _________________ or __________
    • high-level disinfected (HLD)
    • sterilized
  214. noncritical items must be _______________
  215. ___________ use moist heat from steam to sterilize items
  216. How does ethylene oxide (ETO) gas destroy spores and microorganisms?
    by altering cells' metabolic processes
  217. what is cough etiquette
    covering mouth/nose when sneezing/coughing, using a tissue, prompt disposal of tissue, then hand hygiene
  218. a nurse who has a _________________ should be placed on work restriction
    upper respiratory infection
  219. as long as urinary catheters and drainage sets are closed and intact, they are considered ___________
  220. ______________ on drainage bags should remain closed to prevent entrance of bacteria
    outflow spigots
  221. make sure the site from which a drainage tube exits remains clear of ________ or ____________
    • excess moisture
    • accumulated drainage
  222. you only open drainage receptacles when it is necessary to _______ or _________
    • discard
    • measure the volume of the drainage
  223. the surgical wound is considered to be _________
  224. to prevent entry of microorganisms into the wound, always clean ________ from wound site
  225. a client's resistance to infection improves as the nurse protects ________ against infection
    normal body defenses
  226. S. aureus
    MRSA (methicillin-resistant)
  227. the separation and restriction of movement of ill persons with contagious disease
  228. _____________ includes the appropriate use of gowns, gloves, masks, eyewear, and other protective devices or clothing
    barrier precautions (depends on the task being performed)
  229. Centers for Disease Control & Prevention Isolation Guidelines has a two-tiered approach.
    First Tier:
    Two Tier:
    • Standard Precautions
    • Transmission Categories
  230. wear _____________ when you anticipate splashing or spraying of blood or body fluid into the face or when working with a client placed on airborne or droplet precautions
    full-face protection (eyes, nose, and mouth covered)
  231. when collecting a specimen, put it in a medium that __________________
    promotes growth of organisms
  232. ____________ reports determine the antibiotics used in treatment