Biology 200

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Biology 200
2011-02-16 17:35:01

Exam 1
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  1. Complex level of organization
    Living things are highly ordered. While living and nonliving matter are composed of the same basic matter, the molecules that make up living organisms are organized into complex arrangements called organelles, and organelles are organized into complex arrangements called cells and so on
  2. Metabolism (Characteristic of Life)
    Every organism has the ability to acquire materials from its environment and manipulate these materials to supply energy for cellular activities and to supply materials for the construction of new biological structures (Greek for to change)
  3. Homeostasis
    Living things actively maintain their complex structure and their internal environment; homeostasis (same state).
  4. Subatomic particles (LOO)
    All subatomic particles are made up of quarks
  5. Heredity
    All forms of life use DNA as the repository of hereditary information
  6. Atoms (LOO)
    All atoms are made of neutrons, protons, electrons
  7. Molecules (LOO)
    All molecules are made of atoms of varying elements
  8. Organelles (LOO)
    All organelles are made of numerous different molecules
  9. Cells (LOO)
    All cells are made of organelles
  10. Tissues (LOO)
    All tissues are made of cells
  11. Organs (LOO)
    All organs are made up of tissues
  12. Organ Systems (LOO)
    All organ systems are made up of organs
  13. Individuals (LOO)
    All individuals are made up of organ systems
  14. Populations (LOO)
    All populations are made up of individuals
  15. Communities (LOO)
    All communities are made up of populations
  16. Ecosystems (LOO)
    All ecosystems are made up of communities
  17. Biosphere (LOO)
    All biospheres are composed of ecosystems
  18. Emergent Properties
    Each level has properties that emerge that for its own level
  19. Taxonomy, why so important
    Descriptive classification. It is vital because there are so many different "things" that without sorting them into easily defined groups and sub-groups and so on, it would be impossible to study them
  20. Metabolism (def)
    the set of chemical reactions that occur in living organisms to maintain life
  21. Anabolism
    Constructing organic matter
  22. Catabolism
    Breaking down organic matter
  23. Macromolecules
    Very large molecules (e.g. nucleic acids, proteins, carbohydrates, and lipids)
  24. Monomer
    An atom or small molecule that my bond to other monomers to form a polymer
  25. Polymer
    A large molecule created by many monomers
  26. Triglyceride
    Fats and oils, energy storage, insulation, protection. Unsaturated (have one or more C=C double bonds) and Saturated (Have no C=C double bonds) fats
  27. Amino Acid
    Contains the functional groups amine and carboxyl. The building blocks of proteins
  28. Peptide Bond
    The bond that forms between proteins, the amine group of one bonds with the carboxyl group of the other
  29. Polypeptide Chain
    A long chain of proteins (10 or more)
  30. Nucleotide
    Molecules that when joined together form DNA and RNA
  31. Saccharides
    Sugars, carbohydrates
  32. Hydrolysis Reaction
    Separating polymers into individual monomers (digestion)
  33. Dehydration Reaction
    Bind monomers together to form polymers (condensation, polymerization)
  34. Hydroxyl
    O bonded to an H, causes H bonds as it is both a H+ donor and acceptor
  35. Carbonyl
    C double bonded to O, creates polar end of a molecule
  36. Carboxyl
    C bonded to OH and double bonded to O, part of amino acids and fatty acids
  37. Amine
    N bonded to two Hs, part of amino acids
  38. Phosphate
    P bonded to three O one which being double bond and also bonded to OH, part of nucleic acids, ATP, and attached to amino acids
  39. Carbohydrates
    CHO, energy, energy storage, cellular identification
  40. Lipids
    CHO(P), Energy storage, insulation, protection, hormones
  41. Proteins
    CHON(S), movements, enzymatic activities, O2 transport
  42. Nucleic Acids
    CHOPN, genetic material of cells, ATP
  43. Amino Acids
    The building blocks of proteins, contain amine and carboxyl
  44. Primary Structure
    A sequence of amino acids for a specific protein
  45. Secondary Structure
    Folding of primary structure forming H bonds at every 4th amino acid
  46. Tertiary Structure
    The complex overlapping of the secondary structure (many different bonds)
  47. Quaternary Structure
    The combination of 2 or more polypeptide chains to form a single functional protein
  48. Cell Theory
    • All living things or organisms are made of cells and their products.
    • New cells are created by old cells dividing into two.
    • Cells are the basic building units of life.
  49. Lysosome
    The waste factory of a cell, responsible for breaking down waste material
  50. Ribosome
    Component of cells that make proteins from amino acids
  51. Vacuole
    Membrane-bound organelle that acts as a storage station for various materials from waste to water and even harmful materials