ali's midterm

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wahlquist1981
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66868
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ali's midterm
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2011-02-17 23:22:50
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midterm review
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  1. the scientific study of bones
    osteology
  2. the science of the shape and structure of organisms and their parts
    anatomy
  3. Physiology
    the study of functions of living organisms and their parts
  4. Trachea, Heart, lungs
    thoracic cavity
  5. liver, spleen, pancreas, stomach, gall bladder
    abdominal cavity
  6. Bladder, ovaries, colon, rectum, uterus
    pelvic cavity
  7. C1
    Mastoid tip level
  8. C2 C3
    Gonion level
  9. S1 S2
    Anterior superior iliac spine level
  10. C3 C4
    Hyoid bone level
  11. L2 L3
    Inferior costal margin level
  12. T1
    2" above jugular notch
  13. T7
    Inferior angles of scapula level
  14. C7 T1
    Vertebral prominens
  15. T9 T10
    Xiphoid process level
  16. L4 L5
    Most superior aspect of iliac crest level
  17. Flat bones
    Skull bones, Scapula
  18. Short bones
    carpals, tarsals
  19. long bones
    femur, humerus
  20. irregular bones
    sacrum, vertebrae
  21. carpo metacarpal for first digit
    saddle joint
  22. metacarpophalangeal joint
    Ellipsoid joint
  23. interphalangeal joint
    hinge joint
  24. intertarsal joint
    gliding
  25. C1 C2 joint
    Pivot joint
  26. shoulder joint
    ball and socket
  27. wrist joint
    ellipsoid
  28. elbow joint
    hinge joint
  29. knee joint
    hinge joint
  30. hip joint
    ball and socket
  31. small rounded elevated process
    tubercle
  32. small, smooth process for articulation
    facet
  33. beaklike process
    coracoid
  34. club shaped process
    malleolus
  35. sharp process
    spine
  36. Hook shaped process
    Hamulus
  37. Horn like process
    horn
  38. expanded end of a long bone
    head
  39. hole in a bone for transmission of blood vessels and verves
    foramen
  40. cleft or groove
    fissure
  41. shallow or linear depression
    groove
  42. furrow, trench, or fissure like depression
    sulcus
  43. refers to the parts away from the median plane of the body
    lateral
  44. refers to the middle part or main part of an organ
    central
  45. refers to the sole of the foot
    plantar
  46. refers to a part or parts on the opposite side of the body
    contralateral
  47. refers to nearer the head, or situated above
    superior
  48. refers to forward or front part of the body
    anterior
  49. refers to the part farthest from the point of attachment
    distal
  50. refers to near the skin
    superficial
  51. forced or excessive straightening of the joint
    hyperextension
  52. circular movement of a joint
    circumduction
  53. to turn the forearm so that the palm faces backward
    pronate
  54. to turn around on an axis
    rotation
  55. straightening of a joint
    extension
  56. the patient position most commonly used to perform a radiograph of a finger
    sitting at the end of the table
  57. for PA projection of the second digit, central ray is directed to the ___________
    proximal interphalangeal joint
  58. for a lateral projection of second through fifth digits, the central ray is directed___________ degrees
    0
  59. The most common oblique of the second through fifth digit is___________
    PA with lateral rotation
  60. How many degrees is the hand rotated for a PA oblique of the digit
    45
  61. For PA Oblique projection of the first digit, the hand is placed in the _____________ position.
    Prone
  62. The central ray angulation for a PA projection of the hand is
    0 degrees
  63. Which positions are used to demonstrate the hand in lateral projection?
    Ulnar surface down with hand extended or in fan lateral position
  64. for lateral projection of the hand, the central ray is directed to the _____________
    Second digit MCP joint
  65. flexing the fingers for a PA wrist causes _________________
    Placement of the carpal bones closer to the IR
  66. the central ray for a PA projection of the wrist is directed to the ______________
    midcarpal area
  67. For PA of the wrist, what should be in contact with the table top?
    arm, forearm, axilla
  68. For a lateral projection of the wrist, what central ray angle is used?
    0 degrees
  69. for a lateral projection of the wrist, how many degrees should the elbow be flexed?
    90
  70. What is the primary projection used to demonstrate anterior or posterior displacement fractures of the wrist?
    Lateral
  71. the PA oblique projection of the wrist in lateral rotation requires a wrist angulation of _____________ degrees
    45
  72. for exact positioning of the PA oblique wrist, and to ensure duplication in follow up exams, you would use a __________________.
    45 degree foam wedge
  73. The central ray angle for a PA oblique projection of the wrist is________
    0 degrees
  74. What is well demonstrated on a PA oblique of the wrist
    Trapezuim and scaphoid
  75. what projection clearly demonstrates the scaphoid
    PA in ulnar deviation and stecher method
  76. What projection prevents foreshortening of the scaphoid
    PA in ulnar flexion
  77. the PA projection of the wrist (stecher method) best demonstrates the___________.
    scaphoid
  78. The IR must be elevated how many degrees for the PA wrist (stecher method)?
    20
  79. if the IR is placed flat on the table for the PA of the wrist (stecher method), the central ray must be angled ________________ degrees.
    20
  80. How many bones make up the wrist
    8
  81. what is the largest carpal bone?
    capitate, or OS magnum
  82. the hand consists of how many bones?
    27
  83. how many phalanges are in the hand?
    14
  84. what carpal bone has only one name?
    pisiform
  85. what is another name for capitate?
    OS magnum
  86. which bone appears immediately distal to the carpometacarpal joint of the thumb?
    trapezium
  87. the second digit of an adult contains how many interphalangeal joints?
    2
  88. the Hook is a characteristic on which bone of the wrist?
    hamate
  89. what type of joint s the interphalangeal joint?
    hinge
  90. what type of joint is the carpometacarpal joint?
    gliding
  91. what are the 8 bones of the wrist?
    scaphoid, lunate, triquetrium, pisiform trapezuim, trapezoid, capitate, hamate
  92. what is another name for Scaphoid?
    navicular
  93. what is another name for the lunate?
    semi lunar
  94. what is another name for triquetrium?
    triangular
  95. what is another name for trapezium?
    greater multangular
  96. what is another name for trapezoid?
    lesser multangular
  97. what is another name for the capitate?
    OS magnum
  98. what is another name for Hamate?
    Unciform
  99. Area located between the lungs
    mediastinum
  100. major airway tube
    trachea
  101. double walled serous membrane sac
    pleural membrane
  102. inferior part of the lungs
    costophrenic angle or base
  103. _______________ branches away from the trachea
    primary bronchi
  104. what area of the trachea divides into 2 lesser tubes?
    carina
  105. what is the name of the medial aspect of the lungs in which the primary bronchus enters?
    hilum
  106. how many lobes are in the right lung?
    3
  107. how many lobes in the left lung?
    2
  108. which lung is broader and shorter? why?
    the right. because of the placement of the liver and the heart.
  109. what are the three portions of the pleura?
    • visceral (inner) layer
    • pareital (outer) layer
    • pleural cavity. the space between the two layers.
  110. a collapsed lung is called
    atelectstasis
  111. replacement of air with fluid in the lung interstitium and alveoli is called
    pulmonary edima
  112. pneumonia invilvong the bronchi and scattered throughout the lung is called
    lobular bronchio pneumonia
  113. collection of fluid in the pleural cavity is called
    pleural effusion
  114. underaeration of the lungs due to lack of surfactant is called
    hayaline membrane
  115. chronic infection of the lungs due to tubercle bacillus is called
    tuberculosis
  116. what is the name of the lateral end of the scapular spine?
    acromion
  117. what are the 3 angles on the scapula?
    inferior, superior, and lateral
  118. what are the 3 shoulder girdle articulations?
    scapulohumeral, sternoclavicular, and acromioclavicular
  119. what bone articulates with the medial end of the clavicle
    sternum
  120. what end of the clavicle articulates with the manubrium?
    medial
  121. what type of joint are the AC and SC joints?
    gliding
  122. what classification of bone is the clavicle?
    long
  123. what bone articulates with the glenoid cavity?
    humerus
  124. what is the most anterior bony process of the scapula?
    coracoid process
  125. at what level is the clavicle in relation to the ribs?
    just above the first rib
  126. where should the central ray be directed for the AP neutral, internal, and external rotation for the shoulder?
    1" below the coracoid process
  127. what specific area of the humerus should the IR be centered for a transthoracic lateral shoulder? (lawrence method)
    surgical neck
  128. when performing shoulder projections (besides transthoracic), what breathing instructions should be given?
    suspend at expiration
  129. the correct amount of obliquity for the AP oblique (grashey method) is_______________ degrees toward the effected side
    35-45 degrees
  130. should the patient be upright or supine for AC joints? Why?
    upright. because it opens the AC joints
  131. how many degrees and in what direction should the central ray be directed for PA axial clavicle? AP axial of clavicle?
    • PA 15-30 degrees caudal
    • AP 15-30 degrees cephalad
  132. what scapular border should be free from superimposition with the ribs for an AP projection?
    lateral
  133. what type of respiration is used to obliterate or blur lung detail for a scapula projection?
    slow shallow breathing
  134. what is the significance of arm placement for a lateral projection of the scapula?
    the arm should be moved superiorly and anteriorly to free it from being superimposed on the scapula
  135. What is the lateral bone of the forearm?
    radius
  136. what is the medial bone of the forearm?
    ulna
  137. which end of the ulna is the radial head located nearest to?
    proximal
  138. what are the 3 elbow joint articulations?
    radiohumeral, radioulnar, ulnarhumeral
  139. for an AP projection of the forearm, how should the elbow be positioned?
    straight out
  140. for the AP projection of the forearm, why should the hand be palm facing up (supine)?
    so that the radius and ulna dont cross over each other
  141. How many degrees of flexion of the elbow is necessary for a lateral projection?
    90
  142. when positioning for the humerus, how should the IR be in relation to the patient?
    1-2" above the shoulder and along the long axis of the bone.
  143. how should the hand be positioned for the lateral projection of the elbow?
    laterally
  144. what projection of the elbow best demonstrates the coranoid process in profile?
    AP oblique with medial rotation
  145. how should the humeral epicondyles appear in the image of a lateral elbow?
    superimposed
  146. what part of the humerus should be palpated to ensure that the humerus is correctly positioned for the AP projections
    epicondyles and the greater tubercle
  147. For the AP projection with the patient supine, why is it sometimes necessary to elevate the unaffected shoulder on a firm support?
    to flatten out the effected area on the IR
  148. How will beam divergence on a lateral elbow affect the demonstration of the elbow joint?
    the epicondyles would not be superimposed
  149. How many AP projections are necessary to demonstrate the elbow without distortion when an injury prevents full extension?
    2 Distal humerus and proximal forearm
  150. how should the forearm and elbow be rotated to best demonstrate the radial head free from superimposition of the ulna?
    laterally
  151. what passes through the carpal tunnel?
    median nerve
  152. what projection demonstrates the carpal canal?
    gainer hart (tangential)
  153. fracture of the metacarpal neck is called a ____________
    boxer's fracture
  154. what forms the bony thorax?
    12 pairs of ribs, the sternum, and the thoracic vertebrae
  155. what are the parts of the sternum?
    manubrium, body, and xyphoid process
  156. asperation of a foriegn particle in the lung is termed________________
    asperation pneumonia
  157. what body habitus will the body appear almost horizontal?
    hyperstenic
  158. what makes up the mediastinum?
    heart, great vessels, trachea, esophagus, thymus, lymphatics, fibrous tissue, and fat
  159. for a chest lateral decubitus position used to demonstrate fluid in the chest, the patient lies on the _________________ side.
    affected
  160. going from right to left what are the 9 regions of the abdomen?
    right hypochondrium, epigastrium, left hypochondrium, right lateral, umbilical, left lateral, right inguinal, hypogastrium, left inguinal
  161. how many quadrants are there in the abdomen? what are they called?
    4. right upper, left upper, right lower, left lower
  162. what is the C7 vertebra also called?
    vertebral prominens
  163. the lungs are composed of a light spongy substance called the _________________
    pleura

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