Card Set Information
the scientific study of bones
the science of the shape and structure of organisms and their parts
the study of functions of living organisms and their parts
Trachea, Heart, lungs
liver, spleen, pancreas, stomach, gall bladder
Bladder, ovaries, colon, rectum, uterus
Mastoid tip level
Anterior superior iliac spine level
Hyoid bone level
Inferior costal margin level
2" above jugular notch
Inferior angles of scapula level
Xiphoid process level
Most superior aspect of iliac crest level
Skull bones, Scapula
carpo metacarpal for first digit
C1 C2 joint
ball and socket
ball and socket
small rounded elevated process
small, smooth process for articulation
club shaped process
Hook shaped process
Horn like process
expanded end of a long bone
hole in a bone for transmission of blood vessels and verves
cleft or groove
shallow or linear depression
furrow, trench, or fissure like depression
refers to the parts away from the median plane of the body
refers to the middle part or main part of an organ
refers to the sole of the foot
refers to a part or parts on the opposite side of the body
refers to nearer the head, or situated above
refers to forward or front part of the body
refers to the part farthest from the point of attachment
refers to near the skin
forced or excessive straightening of the joint
circular movement of a joint
to turn the forearm so that the palm faces backward
to turn around on an axis
straightening of a joint
the patient position most commonly used to perform a radiograph of a finger
sitting at the end of the table
for PA projection of the second digit, central ray is directed to the ___________
proximal interphalangeal joint
for a lateral projection of second through fifth digits, the central ray is directed___________ degrees
The most common oblique of the second through fifth digit is___________
PA with lateral rotation
How many degrees is the hand rotated for a PA oblique of the digit
For PA Oblique projection of the first digit, the hand is placed in the _____________ position.
The central ray angulation for a PA projection of the hand is
Which positions are used to demonstrate the hand in lateral projection?
Ulnar surface down with hand extended or in fan lateral position
for lateral projection of the hand, the central ray is directed to the _____________
Second digit MCP joint
flexing the fingers for a PA wrist causes _________________
Placement of the carpal bones closer to the IR
the central ray for a PA projection of the wrist is directed to the ______________
For PA of the wrist, what should be in contact with the table top?
arm, forearm, axilla
For a lateral projection of the wrist, what central ray angle is used?
for a lateral projection of the wrist, how many degrees should the elbow be flexed?
What is the primary projection used to demonstrate anterior or posterior displacement fractures of the wrist?
the PA oblique projection of the wrist in lateral rotation requires a wrist angulation of _____________ degrees
for exact positioning of the PA oblique wrist, and to ensure duplication in follow up exams, you would use a __________________.
45 degree foam wedge
The central ray angle for a PA oblique projection of the wrist is________
What is well demonstrated on a PA oblique of the wrist
Trapezuim and scaphoid
what projection clearly demonstrates the scaphoid
PA in ulnar deviation and stecher method
What projection prevents foreshortening of the scaphoid
PA in ulnar flexion
the PA projection of the wrist (stecher method) best demonstrates the___________.
The IR must be elevated how many degrees for the PA wrist (stecher method)?
if the IR is placed flat on the table for the PA of the wrist (stecher method), the central ray must be angled ________________ degrees.
How many bones make up the wrist
what is the largest carpal bone?
capitate, or OS magnum
the hand consists of how many bones?
how many phalanges are in the hand?
what carpal bone has only one name?
what is another name for capitate?
which bone appears immediately distal to the carpometacarpal joint of the thumb?
the second digit of an adult contains how many interphalangeal joints?
the Hook is a characteristic on which bone of the wrist?
what type of joint s the interphalangeal joint?
what type of joint is the carpometacarpal joint?
what are the 8 bones of the wrist?
scaphoid, lunate, triquetrium, pisiform trapezuim, trapezoid, capitate, hamate
what is another name for Scaphoid?
what is another name for the lunate?
what is another name for triquetrium?
what is another name for trapezium?
what is another name for trapezoid?
what is another name for the capitate?
what is another name for Hamate?
Area located between the lungs
major airway tube
double walled serous membrane sac
inferior part of the lungs
costophrenic angle or base
_______________ branches away from the trachea
what area of the trachea divides into 2 lesser tubes?
what is the name of the medial aspect of the lungs in which the primary bronchus enters?
how many lobes are in the right lung?
how many lobes in the left lung?
which lung is broader and shorter? why?
the right. because of the placement of the liver and the heart.
what are the three portions of the pleura?
visceral (inner) layer
pareital (outer) layer
pleural cavity. the space between the two layers.
a collapsed lung is called
replacement of air with fluid in the lung interstitium and alveoli is called
pneumonia invilvong the bronchi and scattered throughout the lung is called
lobular bronchio pneumonia
collection of fluid in the pleural cavity is called
underaeration of the lungs due to lack of surfactant is called
chronic infection of the lungs due to tubercle bacillus is called
what is the name of the lateral end of the scapular spine?
what are the 3 angles on the scapula?
inferior, superior, and lateral
what are the 3 shoulder girdle articulations?
scapulohumeral, sternoclavicular, and acromioclavicular
what bone articulates with the medial end of the clavicle
what end of the clavicle articulates with the manubrium?
what type of joint are the AC and SC joints?
what classification of bone is the clavicle?
what bone articulates with the glenoid cavity?
what is the most anterior bony process of the scapula?
at what level is the clavicle in relation to the ribs?
just above the first rib
where should the central ray be directed for the AP neutral, internal, and external rotation for the shoulder?
1" below the coracoid process
what specific area of the humerus should the IR be centered for a transthoracic lateral shoulder? (lawrence method)
when performing shoulder projections (besides transthoracic), what breathing instructions should be given?
suspend at expiration
the correct amount of obliquity for the AP oblique (grashey method) is_______________ degrees toward the effected side
should the patient be upright or supine for AC joints? Why?
upright. because it opens the AC joints
how many degrees and in what direction should the central ray be directed for PA axial clavicle? AP axial of clavicle?
PA 15-30 degrees caudal
AP 15-30 degrees cephalad
what scapular border should be free from superimposition with the ribs for an AP projection?
what type of respiration is used to obliterate or blur lung detail for a scapula projection?
slow shallow breathing
what is the significance of arm placement for a lateral projection of the scapula?
the arm should be moved superiorly and anteriorly to free it from being superimposed on the scapula
What is the lateral bone of the forearm?
what is the medial bone of the forearm?
which end of the ulna is the radial head located nearest to?
what are the 3 elbow joint articulations?
radiohumeral, radioulnar, ulnarhumeral
for an AP projection of the forearm, how should the elbow be positioned?
for the AP projection of the forearm, why should the hand be palm facing up (supine)?
so that the radius and ulna dont cross over each other
How many degrees of flexion of the elbow is necessary for a lateral projection?
when positioning for the humerus, how should the IR be in relation to the patient?
1-2" above the shoulder and along the long axis of the bone.
how should the hand be positioned for the lateral projection of the elbow?
what projection of the elbow best demonstrates the coranoid process in profile?
AP oblique with medial rotation
how should the humeral epicondyles appear in the image of a lateral elbow?
what part of the humerus should be palpated to ensure that the humerus is correctly positioned for the AP projections
epicondyles and the greater tubercle
For the AP projection with the patient supine, why is it sometimes necessary to elevate the unaffected shoulder on a firm support?
to flatten out the effected area on the IR
How will beam divergence on a lateral elbow affect the demonstration of the elbow joint?
the epicondyles would not be superimposed
How many AP projections are necessary to demonstrate the elbow without distortion when an injury prevents full extension?
2 Distal humerus and proximal forearm
how should the forearm and elbow be rotated to best demonstrate the radial head free from superimposition of the ulna?
what passes through the carpal tunnel?
what projection demonstrates the carpal canal?
gainer hart (tangential)
fracture of the metacarpal neck is called a ____________
what forms the bony thorax?
12 pairs of ribs, the sternum, and the thoracic vertebrae
what are the parts of the sternum?
manubrium, body, and xyphoid process
asperation of a foriegn particle in the lung is termed________________
what body habitus will the body appear almost horizontal?
what makes up the mediastinum?
heart, great vessels, trachea, esophagus, thymus, lymphatics, fibrous tissue, and fat
for a chest lateral decubitus position used to demonstrate fluid in the chest, the patient lies on the _________________ side.
going from right to left what are the 9 regions of the abdomen?
right hypochondrium, epigastrium, left hypochondrium, right lateral, umbilical, left lateral, right inguinal, hypogastrium, left inguinal
how many quadrants are there in the abdomen? what are they called?
4. right upper, left upper, right lower, left lower
what is the C7 vertebra also called?
the lungs are composed of a light spongy substance called the _________________