Chp.4

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Author:
johnnyb0y488
ID:
66872
Filename:
Chp.4
Updated:
2011-02-16 20:08:07
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Medic2011
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part 1
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  1. atrophy
    • decrese
    • may result from
    • lack of stimulation
    • lack of nvs implusees
    • decrease nutrients supply
    • ischemia or decresed vascular suppy
  2. Hypertrophy
    • increase
    • aka dilation
    • most commonly effect heart and kidneys
  3. hyperplasia
    increase thro division(mitosis)
  4. metaplasia
    replace damaged or destroyed cells
  5. dysplasia
    abnormal change in shape and size from external stressor
  6. Hypoxia cellular injury
    • oxygen deficiency (hypoxia)
    • blockage or reduction (ischemia)
    • produces ketoacids (lacid)
  7. chemical cellular injury
    lead, CO, ethanol, drugs, instescticides
  8. infectious cellular injury
    pathogen= produce infection or disease
  9. virulence (pathogenicity)
    • its numbers
    • depends on three things
    • ablility to invade and destroy
    • to produce toxins
    • produce hypersensitiivity
  10. immunologic/inflammatory cellular injury
    body response to cell injury
  11. physical cellular injury
    • acids or alkalis
    • temp
    • atmospheric pressure
  12. nutritional cellular injury
    • to many nutrients intake
    • to little nutrients intake
  13. genetic cellular injury
    • genetic predisposition
    • defective genes
    • altered chromosomes
  14. anabolism
    • "building up"
    • turn noliving substances and turns them into living cytoplasm of the cell
  15. catabolism
    • "breaking down"
    • converts complex substances into simipler substances
    • releasing enegry
  16. most common cellular effects seen
    cell swelling and fatty change
  17. fatty change
    • lipids invade the area of injury
    • mostly in liver
  18. apoptosis
    • confined to local region
    • destroys nonfunctional cells
  19. necrosis
    • pathological process.
    • 4 types
  20. coagulative necrosis
    • cells become firm and opaque
    • like cooked egg white
    • results from hypoxia
    • in kidneys heart and adrenal glands
  21. liquefactive necrosis
    • cells become liquid
    • common in ischemic death in brain cellls
  22. caseous necrosis
    • takes on cottage cheese look
    • from lung infection
  23. fatty necrosis
    • fatty acids combine with calcium, sodium, megnesium ions to create soaps(saponification)
    • breast and abdominal structures
  24. gangrenous necrosis
    tissue death over wide area
  25. dry gangrene
    • mostly on lower extremities
    • turing drying shrunken and black
  26. wet gangrene
    • results from liquefactive necrosis
    • affects internal organs
  27. gas gangrene
    • from bacterial infection of injured tissue
    • gas bubbles in cells
  28. necrosis lacks?
    specificity and will destroy not only injuried but neighborring cells
  29. causes of edema
    • d in plasma oncotic force
    • i BP
    • i capillary permeability (from inflammation or immune)
    • lympathic channel obstruction
  30. formed elements
    • RBC
    • WBC
    • platelets
  31. HBOCs
    • fluids that have ability to transport o2
    • have polymerized hemoglobin
  32. colloids
    • proteins
    • that stay in intravascular space
  33. Albumin
    works to maintain blood volume and blood pressure
  34. respiratory acidosis
    • retention of c02
    • d in ph
    • treat: improve vent
  35. respiratory alkalosis
    • increased respiration
    • excessive elimination of c02
    • i in ph
  36. metabolic acidosis
    • results from dehydration
    • d in ph
  37. metabolic alkalosis
    • usually causes by diuretics(loss of cloride ions)
    • i in ph
  38. immunologic disorders
    rheumatic fever allergies asthma
  39. rheumatic fever
    from inadequate nutrition and crowded living
  40. breast cancer
    • occuring after age 60 to 75
    • first degree relative increase it by 2-3 times
  41. most common endocrine disorder
    diabetes
  42. diabetes type 1
    pancreas produces no to little insulin
  43. diabetes type 2
    • 80% all cases
    • decrease insulin receptor response
  44. hemochromatosis
    • excessive absorption in iron
    • causes weight loss
  45. crohns disease
    chronic inflammation of the digestive wall tract that usaully affects the small intestine
  46. peptic uclers
    inflammation of lining from digestive juices
  47. cholecystitis
    inflammation of the gallbladder
  48. Ms
    affects the nerve of the eye, brain and the spinal cord
  49. hypoperfusion
    inadequate perfusion to the body
  50. causes of hypoperfusion
    • inadequate pump
    • inadequate preload
    • inadequate afterload
    • inadequate HR
    • inadequate fluid
    • inadequate container
  51. shock at cellular level
    impairment of cellular metabolism
  52. anaerobic metabolism
    does not require 02
  53. glycolysis produces
    pyruvic acid, yields very little energy
  54. areobic metabolism
    • requires 02
    • pyruvic acid is degraded into c02, water and energy in the process called KREBS
  55. gluconeogenesis
    break down of fats(lipids) to form glucose
  56. compensation
    detected bt d in arterial blood pressure
  57. cardiogenic shock
    • failure of heart to pump enough blood to suplly all bdy parts
    • reduced BP
  58. atropine
    for bradycardia
  59. sedation for
    tachycardia
  60. dopamine for
    elevate Bp
  61. dobutamine for
    i contractile force
  62. hypovolemic shock
    • loss of intravascular fluid
    • pale cool and clammy
    • low bp and slow hr
  63. neurogenic shock
    • from brain or spinal cord injury
    • warm, red dry skin
  64. anaphylactic shock or anaphylaxis
    • allergic response is very severe
    • laryngeal edema is often a problem
  65. septic shock
    • infection that enter the bloodstream
    • eventaully causing mods

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