Chapter 18 Test

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Chapter 18 Test
2011-02-16 22:39:12
World History

Test of 2/17/11
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  1. Industrial Revolution
    An intense phase of technological development and improvement in society
  2. Entrepreneurs
    those who risked their wealth by investing in new technology or new buisness ventures
  3. Capitalism
    • introduced by Adam Smith
    • the use of private money or goods to produce a profit of more money goods
  4. Agricultural Revolution
    introduction of new american crops such as potatoes and corn which contributed to food supply and farming advances
  5. Open-Field Farming
    • land was divided into strips and worked by the villagers
    • one third of the land remained unplanted so that the soil could be replenished with nutrients
    • part of the land was common- anyone could farm
  6. Crop Rotation
    • a method of alternating different kinds of crops to preserve soil fertility
    • crops grew healthier too
  7. Seed Drill
    • Jethro Tull introduced it in 1701
    • Allowed people to use seeds more efficiently by planting them in regular rows and at the proper depth rather than scattering them by hand over a wide area
    • Tull also developed the horse drawn hoe
  8. Enclosures
    when land owners enclosed their land with hedgerows to stop communal farmers farming on their land for free
  9. Domestic System
    • also called the putting out system
    • people worked from their homes
    • merchants bought wool from a farmer and distributed it to villiages and townspeople to clean weave or spin into yarn in winter.
    • Successful because production costs were low
    • Unsuccessful if winter ended and they went out to farm early
  10. Spinning jenny
    • a muscle powered wooden machine that could spin eight cotton threatds at a time
    • quickly replaced the spinning wheel
  11. Richard Arkwright
    • developed the waterframe
    • built one of englands first factories in Cromford
    • father of the factory system
  12. Water frame
    a large water powered spinning machine
  13. Edmund Cartwright
    invented the first power loom which eventually drove handweavers out of buisness
  14. Cotton Gin
    • Developed by Eli Whitney
    • separated the seeds from cotton more quickly and efficiently than doing it by hand
    • made cotton production in the US profitable
  15. Urbanization
    • the growth of cities
    • increased dramatically in the 1800s
  16. Liberalism
    • became the dominant political philosophy of the new industrial middle class
    • emphasized the importance of individual liberty in all areas
    • focused on freedom of conscience, freedom of thought and speech, and freedom to persue your own economic interests
    • liberals believed the govt should ensure equal treatment under the law for all people, despite wealth or social position
  17. Utilitarianism
    • Introduced by Jeremy Bentham
    • argued that laws should be judged according to their usefullness
    • laws that did not bring the greatest happiness of the greatest number were abandoned
    • favored majority
  18. Socialism
    • belief that individual interest must give way to the interests of society as a whole
    • political equality was meaningless
  19. Means of production
    • the capital and equipment needed to make and exchange goods and use them for the common good of the people
    • goods and income were shared, not very good
  20. Utopian Socialism
    • Charles Fourier introduced it
    • people lived and worked together in perfect harmony and shared everything
    • Robert Owen- famous utopian socialist
    • nonexistant
  21. Trade Unions
    Groups that organized due to frustration about conditions and working problems
  22. Strike
    • a general walkout of all workers in the union
    • usually over wages
    • more workers on strike, more pressure on employers
  23. John Stuart Mill
    • said the govt should stay out of people's lives as much as possible
    • thought govt power should be limited and the govt should promote eductaion
  24. Locomotive
    a steam powered engine which pulled a train of connected cars on iron rails at 30 mph
  25. Robert Fulton
    • American inventor and entreprenuer
    • put a steam engine on his boat
    • was successful on the Hudson River
  26. Dynamo
    • electric generator developed in 1831
    • led to development of telegraph
  27. Samuel Morse
    developed Morse code- dots and dashes
  28. Guglielmo Marconi
    • italian
    • sent the first radio transmission across the Atlantic
  29. Intermal Combustion Engine
    burned gasoline directly inside the engine
  30. Corporations
    • business organizations in which large numbers of people purchase shares of stocks or certificates of partial ownership
    • raised large amounts of capital for investment
  31. financiers
    bought companies as investments and then sold them
  32. Monopoly
    • when a business controlled the production and sale of a product or service in order to dominate a particular market
    • ex: Andrew Carnegee and railroads
  33. Trusts
    • Combinations of similar businesses under the direction of a singel group
    • reduced risks and competition
  34. Separate Spheres
    • idea that men belonged in the public world of business and got while women ran the household
    • many middle class ppl believed in this
  35. Charles Darwin
    • founder of Evolution
    • not liked by the church
    • came up with the theory of natural selection in the origin of species
  36. Natural Selection
    • survival of the fittest
    • most fit pass on jeans and weak will die off
  37. Social Darwinism
    • belief by rich people that they were genetically superior to others because they had the "ability" to be rich
    • manipulated theory
  38. Marie Curie
    • Woman who studied radioactivity for xrays
    • died of radioactive poisoning
  39. Engels and Marx
    • Wrote the Communist Mamifesto
    • said that the poor would one day overthrow the rich violently
  40. Proletariat
    • new working class identified by marx
    • would someday rise up and violently overpower the walthy
  41. Romanticism
    • new form of art and literature associated with strong emotion
    • many romance novels from it
  42. Realism
    • new form of art and literature that represented real everyday life
    • led to photography
  43. Communism
    Where the government completley controls everything about the citizens and there is no individuality