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2011-02-17 03:08:07

terms, etc.
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  1. spreading news and information about media content through word of mouth usually via online discussion groups, chats, and emails
    viral marketing
  2. a computer communications model in which all users have equal abilities to store, send, and accept communications from other users.
    peer to peer (p2p)
  3. (the daily me) this could lead to technological isolation, as groups of like-minded individuals fail to interact with users of dissimilar thoughts
    audience fragmentation
  4. media organizations don't tell consumers what to think, but they tell them what to think about
    audience theories (agenda setting)
  5. content production and distribution, as well as marketing and other functions are controlled by a central unit or individual
    centralized media
  6. an economic structure in which a few very large, very powerful, and very rich owners to control an industry or series of related industries
  7. communication between two or more individuals, usually in a small group
    interpersonal communication
  8. communication to a large group or groups of people who remain largely unknown to the sender
    mass communication
  9. requires audience to receive content when it is transmitted
    synchronous media

    (ex: live tv, radio)
  10. allows audience to receive media at other times
    asynchronous media

    (ex: newspapers)
  11. recording of a live performance so it can be watched later
    • time shift
    • (turns synchronous into asynchronous)
  12. a website on which a person posts regular journal type entries
    weblog, blog
  13. primarily the journalism function of mass communication, which provides information about processes, issues, events, and other developments in society.
  14. the interpretation of aspects of society, including how journalism, advertising, and public relations shape public opinion
  15. the transference of the dominant culture and subcultures from one generation to the next, or to immigrants
    cultural transmission
  16. performed by all three functions (surveillance, correlation, cultural transmission) inrolling the generation of content designed to entertain
  17. a theoretical approach broadly influenced by marxist notions of the role of ideology, exploitation, capitalism, and the economy in understanding and eventually transforming society
    critical theory
  18. a framework in studying theories of culture and communication that shuns the scientific approach and tries to examine the symbolic environment created by mass media and the role it plays in culture and society
    cultural studies
  19. communication is a symbolic process whereby reality is produced, maintained, repaired, and transformed
    carey's ritual view of communication
  20. allowable uses of copyright protected work that does not regulate payment of royalties
    fair use
  21. magazines differ from newspapers in 3 ways:
    • 1. more long form of writing
    • 2. published less frequently
    • 3. higher quality paper
  22. what is broadcasting? (from agriculture)
    spreading of seeds
  23. what is broadcasting? (for communication)
    spreading of signal and information for free through the air
  24. a type of defamation that is written and published, such as a false attack on a person's character, which damages a person's reputation
  25. developed by wilbur schramm in 1954 and based on the mathematical theory of communication. it includes a source, who encodes a message, or signal, which is transmitted (via the media or directly via interpersonal communication) to a destination, where the receiver decodes it
    simplified communications model
  26. communications scholar and historian who has shaped a cultural-studies approach to communication theory
    james carey
  27. the process of interacting with media content and critically analyzing it by considering its particular presentation, it underlying political or social messages, and ownership and regulation issues that may affect what is presented and in what form.
    media literacy
  28. a principle that states that broadband networks should be free of restrictions on content, platforms, or equipment should not get preferential treatment on the network
    net neutrality
  29. the message beneath the message- the underlying, or implicit, message that is being conveyed by media content
  30. edited audio clips from people interviewed
  31. an unseen announcer or narrator talking while other activity takes place, either on radio or during a television scene
  32. a device used in television sitcoms that generates prerecorded laughter, timed to coincide with punch lines or jokes
    laugh track
  33. text online that is linked to another webpage, website, or different part of the same web page by HTML coding
  34. short for really simple syndication, it lets users easily subscribe to feeds from a blog or website
  35. RSS feed
  36. a popular website in which users submit meterial to be voted on by other users, with the most popular material appearing on the homepage
  37. website in which pages can be created and edited by anyone
  38. guides available on television that provide program listings and some simple interactivity, such as ordering pay-per-view programs or buying cd's or dvd's of listed music or shows
    electronic programs guide (EPG)
  39. the practice of advertisers paying for actual products to be used and shown prominently in television shows and movies
    product placement
  40. a marketplace in which media ownership and diversity are severely limited and the actions of any single media group substantially affect its competitors, including determining the content and price of media products for both consumers and advertisers
    media oligopoly
  41. the use of advertising and marketing techniques for social causes, such as anti-smoking or safe sex campaigns
    social marketing
  42. the process in which media is made into computer-readable form
  43. term originally used in audio recording for media analogous to the sound being re-created. it now refers to all nondigitalized media, such as print media, audio and video recording, photography, and film
    analog media
  44. a combination of different types of media in one package thus, film or video with sound is a type of multimedia, because it combines visual and audio elements. web pages that combine text, video, animation, audio, or graphics are another type
  45. although a definiation is still being debated, for digital-media purposes, it can be defined as having 3 main elements:

    1. a dialog that occurs between a human and a computer program
    2. a dialog that occurs simultaneously or nearly so
    3. the audience has some measure of control over what media content it sees and in what order
  46. the ability of media content producers to provide content that is of interest to a specific user based either on criteria the user has selected, such as a zip code, or on automated tracking of their web viewing habits
  47. the ability of media content producers to provide content based on a user's locale, either done automatically based on an isp or after the user has provided information such as a city name or zip code
  48. the notion that sudiences cannot simply be considered consumers anymore but also often take an active role in producing content or information
  49. content that has been created by users of a website or that has been uploaded to a website
    user-generated content
  50. a perspective that states that technology essentially "causes" certain behaviors and the creation of social systems
    technological determinism
  51. a protocol that enables the standardized transfer of text, audio, and video files, as well as email, from one address to another
    hyper text transfer protocol (HTTP)
  52. creating a hypertext link to another websites inside page or pages rather than to its homepage
    deep linking
  53. a part of the main protocol for the internet that allows for computers to easily communicate with each other over a network
    transmission control protocol
  54. a coding format that describes how information should look on the web
    hypertext mark up language (HTML)
  55. a coding format similar to HTML but that allows for easy sharing of information and data about the information on the web, not only how it looks
    extensible mark up language (XML)
  56. a network connection that enables a large amount of bandwidth to the transmitted, which allows for more information to be sent in a shorter period of time
  57. a network connection that does not provide very much bandwidth, thus receiving and sending information more slowly than broadband connections, dial up modems, and some of the early wireless connections with speeds of 56 khz or under
  58. journalism done by amatuers or volunteers, either with citizen journalism websites, blogs, or as part of a mainstream news organization's website
    citizen journalism
  59. a program that is usually audio or video that lets users easily subscribe, much like subscribing to a blog
  60. a copyright law in the united states that makes it a criminal act to circumvent or alter digital rights management technologies that protect copyright works
    digital millennium copyright act
  61. television with a much higher resolution image and sharper image than a standard television signal
    high definition television (HDTV)
  62. television signals that are transmitted digitally rather than over the air, as in analog television broadcasting. digital tv provides better picture and sound quality and has greater capabilities to include interactive functions than analog television
    digital television
  63. simultaneously transmitting multiple channels of compressed digital content over the television airwaves
  64. cost per thousand. the standar unit for measuring advertising rates for publications, based on circulation
  65. rate in which people click on the ad
    click through rate
  66. paying a search engine such as google to have a listing appear prominently when searched
    search engine marketing (SEM)
  67. a strategy that utilizes website design, careful choice of keywords, links, and other techniques to show prominently in online searches
    search engine optimization
  68. a communication scholar who wrote understanding media and the gutenburg galaxy, among other books. he is perhaps most famous for creating the "global village" metaphor regarding electronic media and his often-misunderstood phrase "the medium is the message"
    Marshall McLuhan
  69. a manuscript book of individually bound pages
  70. german printer credited with creating the first mechanical printing press in europe in 1455
    johannes gutenberg
  71. one of a handful of surviving bibles printed by johannes gutenberg, considered the first mechanically printed works in europe
    gutenberg bible
  72. the first paperback book form, which cost ten cent. this made it acceptable even to the poor
    dime novel
  73. publisher of the new york sun, he ushered in the era of the penny press when, on sept 3 1833, he began offering his paper on the streets for a penny
    benjamin day
  74. newspapers that sold for a penny, making them accessible to everyone. they differed from older newspaper forms n that they tried to attract as large an audience as possible and were supported by advertising rather than subscriptions.
    penny press
  75. legal agreements that permit newspapers in the same market or city to merge their business operations for reasons of economics yet maintain independent editorial operations
    joint operating arrangements (JOAs)
  76. created in 1970, it is intended to preserve a diversity of editorial opinion in communities where only two competing, or independently owned, daily newspapers exist.
    newspaper preservation act
  77. first patented by thomas edison in 1877 as a "talking machine" it used a tinfoil cylinder to record voices from telephone conversations. successive technological improvements in electronics and the type of material the sounds were recorded on made sound quality better
  78. an improvement on thomas edisons phonograph in recording audio, it used beeswax to record sound rather than tinfoil. developed by alexander graham bell and inventor charles tainter
  79. developed by inventor emile berliner, it used a flat disc to record sound rather than the cylinder that was used up to that time
  80. the four biggest recording arts companies that control much of the music industry partly through their powerful distribution channels and ability to market music to mass audiences. they are universal music group, sony music, emi, and the warner music group
    major labels
  81. any small record production and distribution companies that are not part of the four major label companies. they include companies producing only one or two albums a year, as well as larger independents such as produce 66 percent of the albums each year but only 20 percent of the sales
    independent labels
  82. cash or gifts given to radio disc jockeys by record labels in exchange for greater airplay given to the label's artists or most recent songs. the practice is now illegal after several scandals in the 1950s
  83. the notion that selling a few of many types of items can be as profitable or even more profitable than selling many copies of a few items. the concept works especially well for online sellers such as amazon or netflix
    long tail
  84. various technologies or security codes used to protect copyrighted works from being illegally copied
    digital rights management (DRM)
  85. inventor of railway telegraphy in 1887, a type of wireless communication that allowed moving trains to communicate with each other and with stations, greatly reducing the number of railway collisions.
    granville t. woods
  86. italian inventor and creator of radio telegraphy, or wireless transmission, in 1899
    guglielmo marconi
  87. considered the "father" of radio broadcasting technology because of his invention that permitted reliable voice transmissions for both point to point communication and broadcasting
    lee de forest
  88. inventor of the fm radio transmission, columbia university engineering professor
    edwin howard armstrong
  89. head of RCA. he helped push the development of television as a mass medium yet blocked the development of fm radio for years because its adoption would hurt am listenership and reduce demand for am radio receivers, which RCA produced and sold.
    david sarnoff
  90. an act of congress that created the federal radio commission and that was intended to help establish some sort of regulation and order over the chaos of the largely unregulated airwaves. it helped establish the principle that the airwaves were a limited public good and that companies using those airwaves had a duty to act responsibly toward the public in terms of the type of material they broadcast
    radio act of 1927
  91. formed by the radio act of 1927, the commission was the precursor to the fcc and created a policy that favored fewer high-power radio broadcasting stations rather than more numerous, low-power stations.
    federal radio commission (FRC)
  92. the principal communication regulatory body at the federal level in the united states, est in 1934
    federal communication commission (FCC)
  93. a segment of time used by radio and television program planners to decide who the primary audience is during that time of day or night.
  94. wilbur schramms communication model has three main elements in communication. what is NOT a part of his simplified model?
    a source, who encodes
  95. the correlation function of mass communication is important because
    the media can help maintain social stability
  96. the communication flow in the transmission model of communication is one-directional, from the sender to the receiver
  97. the telegraph was much easier for the general public to use than the telephone
  98. a cookie is information that a web site puts on a user's local hard drive so that it can recognize when that computer accesses the web site again.
  99. interpersonal communication often interacts with and intersects mass communication
  100. monopoly and oligopoly are synonymous economic media structures
  101. which of the following is not part of media literacy?
    a. one way
    b. critically analyzing media content by considering its particular presentation, its underlying political or social messages
    c. assessing media ownership and regulation issues that may affect what media is presented in what form.
    d. aspects of technology
    e. all of the above
    e. all of the above
  102. which of the following is NOT one of the three general categories in building media literacy?
    A. media grammar
    B. fragmentation of media channels
    C. media production practices
    D. commercial forces shaping media content
    e. none of the above
    C. media production practices
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  103. the grammar of media includes which of the following?
    a. the size and design of books, newspapers, magazines
    b. the types of camera angles used on television, editing, lighting, sound effects and music to help cue viewers
    c. use of sound effects, actualities, and voice overs on radio
    d. the music genres that the music industry divides music into
    e. all of the above
    e. all of the above
  104. which of the following is NOT one of the main ways of evaluating information found online?
    A. looking at the brand name.. is it a trusted brand?
    B. making sure the source is a governmental agency
    C. checking the websites internal information and procedure for fact checking and mission, as well as what types of web sites it links to
    D. comparing the information on the website with the same information from an established media company or from original source material
    e. none of the above
    B. making sure the source is a governmental agency
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  105. which of the following statements about the fragmentation of media channels is incorrect?
    A. A greater diversity of voices now have better chances of reaching a larger media audience than in the past because of more media outlets.
    B. the fragmentation of media channels is drastically altering the media landscape, but this trend is lessened by the world wide web.
    C. a lack of common media experience can segment groups and hurt the establishment of a civil society
    D. Despite fragmentation, some events still draw record audiences such as big sporting events or man-made or natural disasters.
    e. all of the above are correct
    B. the fragmentation of media channels is drastically altering the media landscape, but this trend is lessened by the world wide web.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  106. which of the following is not true of the commercial forces shaping media content?
    A. Most media enterprises in the U.S. follow a profit model for their operation
    B. Large media companies like Time Warner, Walt Disney, and Viacom are global in scope and therefore rarely can dominate local media.
    C. Commercial decisions often play a role in the type of media content that is created
    D. all of these are true
    E. Corporate sponsorship plays a large role in funding public television programs in the U.S., who get less than a third of their funding from the government
    B. large media companies like time warner, walt disney, and viacom are global in scope and therefore rarely can dominate local media
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  107. Concentration of media ownership is driven by which of the following forces?
    a. Economies of scale that media owners can get by owning larger media companies in a variety of media types b. Federal rules that require media companies to acquire new media properties;
    c. Diversity goals that can be met primarily through broad media ownership;
    d. All of the above
    e. None of the above
    a. economies of scale that media owners can get by owning larger media companies in a variety of media types
  108. Which of the following ethical precepts can be used in media?
    a. The Golden Rule: do unto others as you would have them do unto you
    b. The Golden Mean: finding a middle way is better than an extreme
    c. The Categorical Imperative: rules or laws should only be used that would apply to everyone at all times
    d. All of the above can be used
    d. all of the above
  109. Utilitarianism is an approach to ethics that means
    A. Not all ethical precepts can be applied in all situations, but they do provide useful guidelines for media professionals in their behavior.
    B. Journalists often face conflicts among ethical principles in the course of their work and must often make difficult decisions.
    C. Whatever does the most good for the most number of people is best.
    D. Fairness is the fundamental aspect of ethical conduct and people in a dispute should look at the situation outside of their own vested interests in the outcome to decide what is right.
    e. None of the above.
    C. whatever does the most good for the most number of people is best
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  110. Business interests in media organizations can often supersede the public interests entrusted to that organization. This can happen in which of the following ways?
    a. Advertisers threaten to stop advertising unless the media organization stops or changes coverage of the company or a controversial issue b. Lack of consumer power among disadvantaged groups can mean they get less news coverage or are mostly portrayed in a negative light
    c. Cutting staff to save money can affect the quality of news coverage as journalists get even more overworked d. Journalists often lack professional development training because of media organizations' unwillingness to support such training
    e. All of the above
    e. all of the above
  111. media literacy is a goal, not a process.
  112. Media Grammar means understanding how media are created and produced and how aspects of different media types affect how stories and content are presented.
  113. The media grammar of online media is fully developed, despite the relative newness of the medium.
  114. It is difficult for many people to tell legitimate information from biased information online.
  115. Advertisers can influence media content through product placement in shows in which their products are talked about or shown being used by the characters.
  116. The foundations of the Internet were created when the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) created ARPANet, the first national network of computers. In what year did this occur?
    A. 1959
    B. 1949
    C. 1983
    D. 1969
    E. 1979
    D. 1969
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  117. The technical procedure that provided computers from different places a common language to communicate is called
    a. Transmission control protocol (TCP) b. Communication technical protocol (CTP)
    c. Protocol for computer language (PCL) d. Advanced communication procedure (ACP)
    e. None of the above
    a. transmission control protocol (TCP)
  118. In what year did the Defense Department adopt the TCP/IP protocols, the foundation for the Internet?
    A. 1972
    B. 1982
    C. 1992
    D. 1978
    e. None of the above
    B. 1982
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  119. Who invented the World Wide Web (WWW)?
    A. Vinton Cerf
    B. Tim Berners-Lee
    C. Marc Andreeson
    D. Arthur C. Clarke
    e. None of the above
    B. tim berners-lee
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  120. The first widely used graphical browser for the World Wide Web was called
    A. Internet Explorer
    B. Mosaic
    C. Netscape Navigator
    D. America Online (AOL)
    e. None of the above
    B. mosaic
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  121. The Digital Millennium Copyright Act dictated
    A. That Web radio stations would pay royalties for songs that are accessed based on user financial contributions to the stations.
    B. That Web radio stations must pay royalties for songs that are accessed
    C. That Web radio stations were exempt from paying royalties for songs that are accessed.
    d. All of the above
    e. None of the above
    B. that web radio stations must pay royalties for songs that are accessed
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  122. Technological determinism means that
    A. Technology essentially 'causes' certain behaviors
    B. Specially equipped mobile units transmit live and taped remote reports back to a local station.
    C. That Web radio stations must pay royalties for songs that are accessed
    d. Individuals can measure radio listening and TV viewing by determine sub audible tones in the states' signals. e. None of the above
    A. technology essentially 'causes' certain behaviors
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  123. Analog media was originally used in __________ for media that was analogous to the sound it was recreating. It now refers to all __________.
    a. Laser technology; satellite transmissions
    b. Transmitting a digital signal; non-digitized media
    c. Audio recording; non-digitized media d. None of the above is correct
    c. audio recording; non-digitized media
  124. Digitization is the process in which media
    A. Provides information with the assistance of portable video and audio equipment.
    B. Is made into computer-readable form.
    C. Uses the modulation of the sound carrier wave to the fluctuations of the sound itself.
    D. Is merged with the computer.
    e. None of the above.
    B. is made into computer-readable form
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  125. 'Broadband' is a network connection that
    A. Receives and sends information slower than other connections.
    B. Stores video and audio information by using laser technology.
    C. Blends one picture with another in TV production.
    D. Allows for more information to be sent in a shorter period of time.
    e. All of the above.
    D. allows for more information to be sent in a shorter period of time
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)