Chapter4.txt

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Chapter4.txt
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2011-02-22 13:10:04
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Biology
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Biology 110
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  1. What microscope type can view 3d objects?
    Stereo microscope
  2. Who observed the first cells?
    Robert Hooke
  3. What year was the first cells found under a microscope?
    1665
  4. What microscope works by passing visible light through the specimen?
    Light microscope
  5. How does an electron microscope work?
    Using a beam of electrons instead of light
  6. How does a scanning electron microscope (SEM) work?
    Electron beams scan the surface of a cell group allowing them to be shown in 3d
  7. How does a transmission electron microscope(TEM) work?
    Electrons are scanned through a thin slice of a specimen 2d
  8. What are the the smallest cells of bacteria called?
    Mycoplasmas
  9. What are some of the bulkiest cells?
    Bird Eggs
  10. What unit of measure is used for for cell sizes?
    • Micro meter (um)
    • 0.000001 m (1 X 10-6 m)
  11. A _____ is a basic unit of life
    cell
  12. Cells were first observed by _____________
    Robert Hooke

    1665 in bark (plant cell walls)
  13. The first microscope observations described structures that looked like:
    cellulae (little rooms) that a monk would live in
  14. Drawing of the structure of cork by Robert Hooke that appeared in
    Microgrphia
  15. Bacterial cells (moving cells) were 1st observed by
    Antoni van Leeuwenhoek ~ 1675.
  16. Who described moving bacterial cells as animalcules
    Antoni van Leeuwenhoek
  17. What did Antoni van Leeuwenhoek describe moving bacterial cells as.
    animalcules
  18. Cell Theory (three parts)
    1) All living things or organisms are made of cells and their products.

    2) New cells are created by old cells dividing into two.

    3) Cells are the basic building units of life
  19. A what uses light rays passing through lenses to magnify translucent samples
    Light microscope
  20. Specific molecules are tagged with fluorescent dyes is:
    Fluorescence Microscopy
  21. All cells have 3 features in common:
    1) A plasma membrane is a phospholipidbilayer that separates the cell from its environment (“traffic cop” of cells).

    2) Chromosome(s) carry genes made of DNA.

    3) Ribosomes are where protein synthesis takes place.- made of 2 subunits
  22. Domain Bacteria & Domain Archaea both consist of
    prokaryotes, which are unicellular and microscopic.
  23. Prokaryotes have what two charactaristics:
    DNA coiled in a nucleoid region (not in a membrane-bound nucleus)

    No membrane-bound organelles
  24. No membrane-bound organelles is for what type of cells:
    prokaryotes
  25. Domain Eukarya consists of
    eukaryotes
  26. eukaryotes contain waht two items
    nucleus and organelles
  27. Domain Eukarya consists of eukaryotes, which contain a nucleus and organelles and what else:
    DNA located in a membrane-boundnucleus- Membrane-bound organelles
  28. Eukaryotic cells are partitioned into _________ where cellular ________occurs.
    compartments

    metabolism
  29. Eukaryotic cells have what features:
    • - enclosed by membranes
    • - fluid-filled
    • - maintain conditions that favor particular metabolic processes and activities: cellular metabolis
  30. The plasma membrane is:
    A phospholipid bilayer that separates the cell from its environment (“traffic cop” of cells)
  31. A phospholipid bilayer that separates the cell from its environment (“traffic cop” of cells) is:
    The plasma membran
  32. What are the 4 types of life processes occur in eukaryotic cells.
    • 1. Manufacturing
    • 2. Breakdown of molecules
    • 3. Energy processing
    • 4. Structural support, movement, and communicatio
  33. Manufacturing involves:
    • 1)Nucleus
    • 2)Ribosomes
    • 3)Endoplasmic reticulum
    • 4)Golgi apparatus– The manufacturing of a protein involves all of these
  34. The ______ control’s the cell’s activities by directing ___________ and is responsible for inheritance (contains most of the cell’s DNA in chromosomes).
    • nucleus
    • protein synthesis
  35. Eukaryotic chromosomes are made up of _______ , which is a complex of proteins and DNA.
    chromatin
  36. Before a cell divide, its_____ is copied within the _________.
    • DNA
    • nucleus.
  37. The ____________ is a double membrane with pores that allow material to flow in and out of the nucleus.
    nuclear envelope
  38. The _______ is the site where __________ is synthesized.
    • nucleolus
    • ribosomal RNA
  39. _________ are the cellular components that carry out protein synthesis
    Ribosomes
  40. Ribosomes are synthesized in the ______, which is found in the ________
    • nucleolus
    • nucleus
  41. Cells that must synthesize large amounts ________ of have a large number of _________
    • protein
    • ribosomes
  42. Ribosomes can be _______or ______.
    free or bound
  43. Free ribosomes are suspended in the ______
    cytoplasm
  44. Bound ribosomes are attached to the __________ associated with the ________.
    • endoplasmic reticulum (ER)
    • nuclear envelope
  45. The endoplasmic reticulum is a _______.
    biosynthetic factory
  46. 2 types of Endoplasmic Reticulum:
    1)Smooth ER does not have attached ribosomes.

    2)Rough ER has ribosomes attached to the outer surface
  47. Smooth ER does not have __________
    attached ribosomes
  48. Rough ER has ________ attached to the outer surface.
    ribosomes
  49. Smooth ER is involved in a variety of diverse metabolic processes, like _________
    enzyme production to then synthesize lipid
  50. Rough ER makes more _________ for itself and makes ______ that are destined for secretion to other parts of the cell (in transport vesicles)
    • ER membrane
    • proteins
  51. Many transport vesicles travel to the ___________
    Golgi Aparatus
  52. Molecular warehouse and finishing factory is the_______
    Golgi Apparatus
  53. The Golgi apparatus modifies _______ manufactured by the _______.
    • proteins
    • ER
  54. One side of the Golgi apparatus functions as a _____________ for the product and the other as a ____________
    • receiving dock
    • shipping dock
  55. Many cell organelles are connected through the __________ _______
    endomembrane system
  56. ___________ ____________ is a network of mebranes inside and around a eukaryotic cell, related either through direct physical contact or by the transfer of vesicles (membranous sacs)
    endomembrane syste
  57. ________carry out protein synthesis in the rough ER
    Ribosomes
  58. The protein is transported in a vesicle from the ER to the ___________ for modification
    Golgi apparatus
  59. What are the 4 types of life processes occur in eukaryotic cells.
    • 1. Manufacturing
    • 2. Breakdown of molecules
    • 3. Energy processing
    • 4. Structural support, movement, and communication
  60. 4 types of life processes occur in eukaryotic cells depend on what?
    structures and organelles.
  61. Breakdown of Molecules (the 3 “-omes”)
    • 1) Lysosomes (not in plant cells)
    • 2) Vacuoles
    • 3) Peroxisome
  62. __________ contain digestive hydrolytic enzymes enclosed in a membranous sac that is pinched off from the rough ER and is reabsorbed into the Golgi apparatus.
    Lysosomes
  63. _________ are other membranous sacs that are pinched off from the plasma membrane - have various functions. i.e. food vacuole
    Vacuoles
  64. ___________ degrade hydrogen peroxide.- involved in breakdown of fatty acids and alcohol detoxificatio
    Peroxisomes
  65. _________ recycle damaged parts of a cell.
    Lysosomes
  66. What is the process for lysomes to repair a cell:
    1st, the damaged organelle is enclosed in a membrane vesicle.Next, a lysosome fuses with the vesicle and enzymatically breaks down (digests) the damaged organelle
  67. Energy processing involves:
    • 1) Mitochondria in animal cells
    • 2) Chloroplasts in plant cells
  68. __________carry out cellular respiration; contain mitochondrial DNA
    Mitochondria
  69. Cellular respiration is:
    the process that converts the chemical energy of food (sugars) to the chemical energy of ATP(adenosine triphosphate); conversion in the mitochondrial matrix
  70. ________ is the main energy source for cellular work
    ATP
  71. ______ are the photosynthesizing organelles of plants.
    Chloroplasts
  72. _____________ is the conversion of light energy from the sun to chemical energy of sugar molecules
    Photosynthesis
  73. Structural support, movement & communication involves:
    • 1) Plasma Membrane
    • 2) Cytoskeleton
    • 3) Cell Wall (not in animal cells)
  74. The __________ is a network of protein fibers that functions in cell structural support and motility
    cytoskeleton
  75. Microfilaments are:
    solid rods made of actin proteins; just inside plasma membrane; help support cell shape
  76. Microtubules are:
    • hollow tubes made of tubulin proteins; help shape & support cell
    • and act as tracks. i.e. Lysosome walks along microtubule to reach a
    • food vacuole.
  77. Plant cell walls are composed primarily of _________
    cellulos
  78. The __________ is a rigid extracellular structure that protects the cell and provides skeletal support that helps keeps the plant upright against gravit
    plant cell wall
  79. Plant cells have cell junctions called __________that allow for communication between cells
    plasmodesmata
  80. It is hypothesized that ________ and __________evolved by endosymbiosis
    • mitochondria
    • chloroplasts
  81. Both _______ and ________ have (1) DNA and (2) ribosomes that are very similar to that found in prokaryotic cells, and mitochondria and chloroplasts replicate much like prokaryotes
    • mitochondria
    • chloroplasts
  82. The hypothesis of _________ proposes that mitochondria and chloroplasts were formerly small prokaryotes that began living within larger cell
    endosymbiosis

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