Historical Context and Analysis.txt.

Card Set Information

Author:
Anonymous
ID:
66950
Filename:
Historical Context and Analysis.txt.
Updated:
2011-02-17 00:03:24
Tags:
VLI JennbrandiL
Folders:

Description:
Lecture 4 Historocial context and analysis
Show Answers:

Home > Flashcards > Print Preview

The flashcards below were created by user Anonymous on FreezingBlue Flashcards. What would you like to do?


  1. Why is this relevant to understanding the New testament? Christ broke down the dividing wall between Jews and Gentiles (Eph 2:14). The Jerusalem temple had a barrier with a sign forbidding Gentiles to go beyond the Court of the Gentiles;if they did, they would be put to death. Actual stonings of Gentiles occurred. When Jesus died on the cross, the temple curtain in front of the Holy of Holies was torn in two from top to bottom, symbolizing a new and universal access to God (Mt 27:51, Mk 15:38, Lk 23:45).
    They are the historical events that yield background information for the meaning of NT texts.
  2. Why is this relevant to understanding the New testament?The events of Acts 18-20 provide information on Paul’s early ministry, which helps us better understand his letter to the Ephesians.A riot occurred in Ephesus over Paul’s discrediting Ephesus’ chief goddess, Artemis (Acts 19:23-41). The riot possibly was a contributing factor to Paul’s arrest in Jerusalem and eventual imprisonment in Rome
    They are the historical events that yield background information for the meaning of NT texts.
  3. Why is this relevant to understanding the scriptures? Understanding the background features and history of the seven churches of Asia Minor gives great insights about what the letters to those churches mean (Rev 2-3). This is also true for each of Paul’s church plants.In the letter to the Laodicean church, Christsays, “So, because you are lukewarm—neither hot nor cold—I am about to spit you out of my mouth.” (Rev 3:16). The water conduits in Laodicea had lukewarm water that made the Laodiceans want to vomit.
    They are the historical events that yield background information for the meaning of NT texts.
  4. Why is this relevant to understanding the new testament? Emperor Caligula’s attempt to install a cult statue of himself in the Jerusalem temple was fortunately avoided by the governor of Syria’s prudent stalling and the assassination of Caligula by the elite Praetorian Guard in 41 A.D. But the near occurrence of this eventgalvanized an abhorrence of anyone “who sets himself up in God’s temple, proclaiming to be
    • God” (1 Thess 2:4). Moreover, one can only appreciate the egregious dimension of this if one is familiar with the nightmare of the reign of Antiochus Epiphanies, who had sacrificed a pig in the Holy Place of the Jewish Temple in 167 B.C. This event was referred by Jews as “the abomination of desolation.”
    • They are the historical events that yield background information for the meaning of NT texts.
  5. What are these examples of? Greco-Roman sources (particularly the Stoic philosophical school, on who is wise, spiritual, powerful, noble, and of high status) give us very helpful background for
    • understanding Paul’s confrontation of the Corinthians. He admonished them for being arrogant
    • and boasting like the Stoics. Paul drew upon the Stoic literature of his day. See Cicero (106-43
    • B.C.), De Finibus.Greco rhetorical orators competed intensely with each other and had sects or parties. To
    • the Corinthians, Paul mentions “words of wisdom” and the competition among those claiming
    • to follow Paul and those claiming to follow Apollos (1 Cor 1:12).Also, note Stoic “Household Codes” that Paul modifies for Christian households. These
    • Stoic household codes describe roles (husband/wife, parent/child and master/slave) to promote
    • Roman social order, productiveness, and good citizenship. Disregarding these codes made one
    • an enemy of the Roman state. NT writers want Christians to be better citizens and therefore
    • affirm the household codes. Yet Paul introduces subtle changes that have a freeing, very progressive viewof wives’ and slaves’ roles (Eph 5:22-6:9)
    • How Contemporary literature outside the text under study may be a relevant context to the way the biblical
    • author thinks, uses language, or alludes to events or cultural phenomena.
  6. What are these examples of?Other New Testament books and passages can be essential background for a text, e.g., Acts 19 for Ephesians. The Apocryphal books (contained in the Roman Catholic Bible but not most current Protestant Bibles), written just before Jesus’ time, contain great background and historical information concerning the OT and NT. E.g., 1 & 2 Maccabees mention Antiochus Epiphanes and Ecclesiasticus provides background on the use of Wisdom Literature in the NT. -The Dead Sea Scrolls (manuscripts discovered in pottery jars among 11 caves in 1947) provide invaluable information about Second Temple Judaism during the historical period leading up to the NT (200 B.C. to 135 A.D.). This valuable information had been unavailable to the church for 1,900 years.
    • Contemporary literature outside the text under study may be a relevant context to the way the biblical
    • author thinks, uses language, or alludes to events or cultural phenomena.
  7. What kind of social role or relationship does this represent? Galatians 4: 12 I plead with you, brothers, become like me, for I became like you. You have done me no wrong.As you know, it was because of an illness that I first preached the gospel to you. 14 Even though my illness was a trial to you, you did not treat me with contempt or scorn. Instead, you welcomed me as if I were an angel of God, as if I were Christ Jesus himself. 15 What has happened to all your joy? Ican testify that, if you could have done so, you would have torn out your eyes and given them to me …. 19My dear children, for whom I am again in the pains of childbirth until Christ is formed in you, 20 how I wish I could be with you now and change my tone, because I am perplexed about you! Paul’s first encounter with the Galatians was very positive and honoring. They were receptive to Paul’smessage. What happened in the Galatian church that caused Paul to dramatically change his message?
    Personal Relationship
  8. What kind of social role or relationship does this represent?-Thessalonians 2:7 but we were gentle among you, like a mother caring for her little children.8 We loved you so much that we were delighted to share with you not only the gospel of God but our lives as well, because you had become so dear to us …. 11 For you know that we dealt with each of you as a father deals with his own children, 12 encouraging, comforting and urging you to live lives worthy of God, who calls you into his kingdom and glory. Paul bonded and had close relationship with the Thessalonians. Here we see Paul’s relational style.
    Personal Relationship
  9. What kind of social role or relationship does this represent?Paul’s use of authority comes out in the following passages: 1 Thess 2:6b-7, “As apostles of Christ we could have been a burden to you, but we were gentle among you, like a mother caring for her children.” As their authority, Paul could make demands of the Thessalonians. But here he uses more of a nurturing parent’s tone.
    Apostle-Congregation roles
  10. What kind of social role or relationship does this represent?1 Cor 3:10, “By the grace God has given me, I laid a foundation as an expert builder (sophos architektōn) Paul assumes the role of an architect or crafter.
    Apostle-Congregation roles
  11. What kind of social role or relationship does this represent?1 Cor 4: 19 But I will come to you very soon, if the Lord is willing, and then I will find out not only how these arrogant people are talking, but what power they have. 20 For the kingdom of God is not a matter of talk but of power. 21 What do you prefer? Shall I come to you with a whip, or in love and with a gentle spirit? Paul has authority and if he needs to use it, he will. But he prefers a nurturing role and will use brute authority only if necessary.
    Apostle-Congregation roles
  12. What kind of social role or relationship does this represent? 1 Cor 9: 1 Am I not free? Am I not an apostle? Have I not seen Jesus our Lord? Are you not the result of my work in the Lord? 4 Don't we have the right to food and drink? 14 In the same way, the Lord has commanded that those who preach the gospel should receive their living from the gospel. Jesus gave Paul authority as an apostle. Paul has full rights to the Corinthians’ supporting him with food, drink and financial compensation. But he does not exert this right because of: (1) other leaders who were trying to gain lots of money and prestige; and (2) Paul wanting to avoid being cast into the role of the “client” to Corinthian “patrons.” Paul wants to avoid being classified according to their cultural norms.
    Apostle-Congregation roles
  13. What kind of social role or relationship does this represent? 1 Cor 14: 36 Did the word of God originate with you? Or are you the only people it has reached? 37 If anybody thinks he is a prophet or spiritually gifted, let him acknowledge that what I am writing to you is the Lord's command. 38 If he ignores this, he himself will be ignored. Paul speaks as an apostle of Christ, commissioned by God. He knows he is writing the Lord’s command. If someone does not listen to Paul, they are to be ignored.
    Apostle-Congregation roles
  14. What kind of social role or relationship does this represent? 1 Cor 4:15, “Even though you have ten thousand guardians in Christ, you do not have many fathers, for in Christ Jesus I became your father through the Gospel.” In Roman society, a household was under the management of the male who, as husband, father, and master, was the “hub” or “head” of the household. The children of a household were to be like their father in character, values, emotions, and predispositions. Here Paul positions himself as the_________ and sees the Corinthians as his spiritual children. Therefore, the Corinthians know what is expected of them.
    pater familia roles
  15. What kind of social role or relationship does this represent?The Greco-Roman world was a patronal society, supported by an infrastructure of networks of favor and loyalty. Such bonds existed between equals who called each other “friends” and for whom the dictum “friends possess all things in common” held true (e.g., the Philippians and Paul).Such bonds were also forged between social unequals, in which one party was clearly the patron of the other. Lower-status clients sought favor and were indebted to their benefactors.Roman society was made up of class strata. Wealthy patrons owned villas with atriums and
    • recliniums (large eating rooms). Higher status people ate by reclining on couches.House churches met at wealthy patrons’ villas. Paul confronted the Corinthian church about how they observed these class strata during the Lord’s Supper meal. Paul said that was why some of them were sick (1 Cor 11:29-31). Apparently, patrons also competed for status, claiming, “I’m Paul’s patron” or “I’m Apollos’ patron.” Paul refused to take their money, emphasizing that Jesus is Patron of all believers, we are all his clients and all are indebted to him. Paul emphasizes family roles and de-emphasizes the patron-client social strata.
    • Patron-Client roles
  16. What aspect of cultural background does this describe? Understanding the practices of groups within Judaism, on the one hand, and of pagan religions encountered by the Gentile mission, on the other hand, can be important for interpreting a number of
    • passages. Also, the role of the goddess Diana (Artemis) and Chthonic (underworld) gods in relationship to magic plays a significant role in interpreting parts of Ephesians. Belief in magic, spirit powers and fate created great fear in the Ephesians. The Gospel broke people’s fear. In Ephesians, Paul addresses spiritual warfare more directly than in any other of his letters.
    • Religious practices
  17. What aspect of cultural background does this describe?Understanding Jewish concepts of purity and pollution and Greco-Roman values of honor and shame are very important for interpreting the NT. For pagans, honor came from peers and society. Paul says God is the one who gives us honor; and “the public court of reputation” important for Christians is that of other Christians and the angels.
    Behavioral norms (values)
  18. What aspect of cultural background does this describe?Understanding how Rome governed her empire is often helpful in interpreting a number of NT passages. Current NT scholarship is very focused on the NT and the politics of Rome.Roman citizenship gave people certain rights. In Acts 16, Paul was imprisoned and whipped. When he mentioned he was a Roman citizen, the authorities were terrified because they could be punished for violating his rights.The Roman Caesar’s role was that of lord. Christians’ proclaiming Jesus alone as Lord created social conflict regarding whom they gave their allegiance to. After winning a battle, a Roman general would march in victory into a city with his procession of family, slaves and conquered prisoners. The burning of incense represented the honor, wealth and status of the conqueror. But to the prisoners, the smell of incense meant slavery or death. Paul used the incense metaphor to describe how the proclamation of the true king and conqueror became for its hearers either the sent of life or the odor of death (2 Cor 2:14-16).
    Government
  19. What aspect of cultural background does this describe?What commerce was important to Ephesus? It is helpful to know that Ephesus was the leading commercial city of Asia Minor and the entry point of trade for the whole region. In Revelation, John mentions cities on the postal route starting and ending at Ephesus; and some of the churches Paul addressed were on this postal route, as well.
    Economic system and commerce
  20. What aspect of cultural background does this describe? Hellenistic philosophy and mysticism, their terms and ideas, all play a vital role for understanding 1 Corinthians. Remember also, that Hebrew-Jewishthinking and language stand behind the Greek of the NT. In our current study, we must ask what philosophical beliefs permeated the mindset of the Ephesians. Paul writes in Greek, but his Jewish background flavors the meanings of his writings.
    Philosophy, language, and ideas
  21. What tool for historical and literary analysis of biblical texts does this describe?___________________ are good for gaining background information on any name, place, institution, idea, or event in the Bible
    Bible dictionaries and encyclopedias
  22. What tool for historical and literary analysis of biblical texts does this describe?_______________ provide good orientation to OT or NT books.
    Bible surveys and introductions
  23. What tool for historical and literary analysis of biblical texts does this describe?__________ provide good information about the author, audience, the book’s background, and
    • commentary on the biblical texts themselves.
    • Commentaries
  24. What tool for historical and literary analysis of biblical texts does this describe? This is the first work of its kind that students should acquire. You can look up any theologically-important OT or NT word.
    Theological word books
  25. What tool for historical and literary analysis of biblical texts does this describe? These books are organized alphabetically by word. For each word, they specify: how many times the word is used, Scripture references for each verse containing the word, and Hebrew and/or Greek glossaries.
    Concordances and Interlinears
  26. What tool for historical and literary analysis of biblical texts does this describe? This Scholarly tool explains a Hebrew or Greek word in English
    Hebrew and Greek Lexicons, Analyses, and Parsing Guides
  27. What tool for historical and literary analysis of biblical texts does this describe?This scholarly tool includes maps and describe events related to places mentioned in the Bible.
    Bible Atlases
  28. What tool for historical and literary analysis of biblical texts does this describe?___________ are available relating to virtually any issue in the Bible.
    Books and monographs

What would you like to do?

Home > Flashcards > Print Preview