Musculoskeletal Development

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Musculoskeletal Development
2011-02-17 00:14:45
Semester Mini Martin Micro Anatomy

Musculoskeletal Development
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  1. Initiates differentiation of the somites
    • Whh (dorsal neural tube)
    • Shh (notochord)
  2. Forms the intrinsic back muscles
    Epimere - dorsal myotome (formed from the dermomyotome)
  3. Forms the skin
    Dermotome - from the dorsomyotome
  4. Forms the limb buds
  5. Vertebral bodies are formed from...
    The caudal portion of a sclerotome and the cranial portion of the overlying sclerotome
  6. The nucleus pulposus is a remnant of what embryonic tissue?
  7. Lateral plate mesoderm gives rise to these structures (4)
    • Dermis
    • Bones
    • Connective tissue
    • Sternum
  8. Paraxial mesoderm divides into these two structures
    • Somitomeres (cranial)
    • Somites (occiput-caudally)
  9. Mesenchymal cells that form from the ventral region of each somite
  10. Sclerotome give rise to these structures (2)
    • Vertebral column
    • Ribs
  11. Dermomyotome is divided into these 2 cell types
    • Dermotome
    • Myotome
  12. Dermotome develops into
    Dermis of the back
  13. The dermis of the body walls is formed from this type of mesoderm
    Lateral plate mesoderm
  14. Myoblasts originate and migrate from which lip of the somite?
  15. Epimeres originate from which portion of the myotome and are innervated by which rami?
    Dorsal lip, dorsal rami
  16. Epimeres give rise to which muscles?
    Intrinsic back muscles
  17. Hypomeres are innervated by which rami and arise from which portion of the myotome?
    Ventral lip, ventral rami
  18. Hypomeres give rise to which muscles?
    • Prevertebral
    • Intercostal
    • Abdominal
  19. A fracture at which areas of the upper limb would cause stunted growth?
    Wrist or shoulder
  20. A fracture at which areas of the lower limb would cause stunted growth?
    Distal femur, proximal tibia
  21. The anterior membranous neurocranium develops from...
    Neural crest cells
  22. The posterior membranous neurocranium develops from...
    paraxial mesoderm
  23. Cartilaginous viscerocranium arise from which germ layer?
    Neural crest cells (aka 4th germ layer) of the pharyngeal arches
  24. Premature closure of the sagittal suture results in:
  25. Premature closure of the coronal suture results in:
  26. Determines the growth of the limb bud
    Apical Ectodermal Ridge
  27. Muscles in the anterior compartment of the arm are innervated by what division of the brachial plexus?
    Anterior (flexors)
  28. Muscles of the anterior compartment of the thigh are innervated by nerves from which division of the lumbar plexus?
    Posterior (extensors)
  29. Lack of body wall musculature caused by a lack of migration of myoblasts or neural crest cells
    Prune Belly Syndrome
  30. Waddling gait in toddlers is indicative of what syndrome?
    Muscular Dystrophy
  31. Neural crest cells give rise to which bones of the skull?
    • Viscerocranium
    • Anterior neurocranium