CH9

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Author:
ht2lvu
ID:
66959
Filename:
CH9
Updated:
2011-02-17 00:28:57
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psychology
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Child Development AP Psychology
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  1. nature-nurture issue
    long-standing discussion over the relative importance of nature (heredity) & nuture (environment) in their influence on behavior & mental processes
  2. identical twins
    a pair who started life as a single fertilized egg, which later split into two distinct individuals, have exactly the same genes
  3. fraternal twins
    • a pair who started life as two seperate fertilized eggs that happened to share the same womb
    • 50% of genetic material in common
  4. continuity view
    perspective that development is gradual & continuous
  5. discontinuity view
    perspective that development proceeds in an uneven fashion
  6. developmental stages
    periods of life initiated by significant transitions or changes in physical or psychological functioning
  7. prenatal period
    developmental period before birth
  8. zygote
    a fertilized egg
  9. embryo
    the name for the developing organism during the first eight weeks after conception
  10. fetus
    term for developing organism between the embryonic stage & birth
  11. placenta
    • organ interface between the embryo or fetus & the mother
    • seperates the blood streams
    • allows the exchange of nutrients & waste products
  12. teratogens
    substances from the environment (viruses, drugs, & other chemicals) that can damage the developing organism during the prenatal stage
  13. neonatal period
    extends through the first month after birth
  14. attachment
    enduring social-emotional relationship between a child & parent or other regular caregiver
  15. imprinting
    a primitive form of learning in which some young animals follow & form an attachment to the first moving object they see & hear
  16. contact comfort
    stimulation & reassurance derived from the physical touch of a caregiver
  17. schemas
    • Piaget's theory
    • mental structures or programs that guide a developing child's thought
  18. assimilation
    a mental process that modifies new information to fit it into existing schemas
  19. accommodation
    a mental process that restructures existing schemas so that new information is better understood
  20. sensorimotor stage
    • 1st stage of Piaget's theory
    • child relies heavily on innate motor responses to stimuli
  21. object permanence
    the knowledge that objects exist independently of one's own actions or awareness
  22. preoperational stage
    • 2nd stage of Piaget's theory
    • marked by well developed mental representation & the use of language
  23. egocentrism
    • Piaget's throy
    • the self-centered inability to realize that there are other viewpoints beside one's own
  24. animistic thinking
    a preoperational mode of thought in which inanimate objects are imagined to have life & mental processes
  25. centration
    a preoperational thought pattern involving the inability to take into account more than one factor at a time
  26. irreversibility
    the inability, in the preoperational child, to think through a series of events or mental operations & then mentally reverse the steps
  27. concrete operational stage
    • 3rd stage of Piaget's theory
    • when a child understands conservation but still is incapable of abstract thought
  28. conservation
    the understanding that the physical properties of an object or substance do not change when appearances change but nothing is added or taken away
  29. theory of mind
    an awareness that other people's behavior may be influenced by beliefs, desires, & emotions that differ from one's own
  30. temperament
    • an individual's characteristic manner of behavior or reaction
    • assumed to have a strong genetic basis
  31. zone of proximal development
    difference between what a child can do with help & what the child can do without any help or guidence
  32. psychosocial stages
    • Erikson's theory
    • developmental stages refer to eight major challenges that appear successively across the lifespan, require an individual to rethink his or her goals & relationships with others
  33. adolescence
    in industrial societies, a developmental period beginning at puberty & ending (less clearly) at adulthood
  34. puberty
    onset of sexual maturity
  35. primary sex characteristics
    sec organs & genitals
  36. secondary sex characteristics
    gender-related physical features that develop during puberty
  37. formal operations stage
    • last of Piaget's stage
    • the abstract thought appears
  38. generativity
    • Erikson's theory
    • process of making a commitment beyond oneself to family, work, society, or future generations
  39. denial
    refusing to believe the individual is sick
  40. anger
    • patient displays anger that they are sick
    • "why me?!"
  41. bargaining
    making a deal in return for a cure that will fulfill promises
  42. depression
    • generally depressed
    • affect includes sleep, loss of appetite, etc.
  43. acceptance
    patient realizes death is inevitable & accepts fate
  44. rooting reflex
    the tendency to move its head when stroked on the cheek, turn toward the stimulus as if searching for a nipple & open its mouth
  45. moro or startle reflex
    when exposed to a loud noise or sudden drop, the neonate automatically arches his/her back, flings his/her limbs out & quickly retract them
  46. menarche
    • first menstrual period at about age 12.5
    • marks female fertility
    • male fertility begins at about age 14
  47. menopause
    the cessation of the ability to reproduce accompanied by a decrease in production of females sex hormones, usually at about age 50
  48. artificialism
    the belief of the people that all objects are made by people
  49. preconcentional level
    • Kohlberg's theory
    • people's decisions are based on avoiding punishment or seeking rewards
  50. conventional level
    • Kohlberg's theory
    • people's decisions are based on the approval of others & society
  51. postconventional level
    • Kohlberg's theory
    • people's decisions is based on higher morals & ethics
  52. secure attachment
    after absence baby is happy to see mother, receptive to her contact
  53. insecure attachment
    after absence baby is angry & rejecting her mother, avoid her, ignores, or behaves inconsistently
  54. authoritarian parenting style
    sets up absolute & restrictive rules accompanied by punishment for disobedience
  55. authoritative parenting style
    • focuses on flexible rules for which reasons are generally given
    • parents are warm & nuture independence within guidelines
  56. permissive parenting style
    sets no firm guidelines for behavior & tends to give into demands of the child
  57. gender
    the sociocultural dimension of being biologically male or female
  58. gender roles
    sets of expectations that prescribe how males & females should act,think, or feel
  59. gender identity
    person's sense of being male or female
  60. gender schema
    mental set of what society considers appropriate behavior for each of the sexes
  61. gender role stereotypes
    broad categories that reflect our impressions & beliefs about males & females
  62. androgyny
    the presence of desirable masculine & feminine charateristics in one individual
  63. stereotype threat
    anxiety that influences members of a group concerned that their performance will confirm a negative stereotype

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