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Air is a mixture of several gasses. When completely dry, what are the main compositions in air?
- 78% Nitrogen
- 21% Oxygen
- 1% Other gasses
The atmosphere is devidced into layers based upon temperature. In what layer do we fly? What layer defines it's outer boundry.
The Troposphere and the Tropopause.
Describe the Troposphere.
Average height above the earth is 7 miles. Fluxuates with latitude and seasons.
The Troposphere can be 25-30,000 feet high at the poles and 55 to 65,000 feet at the equator.
Name the atmospheric layers past the Tropopose.
Stratosphere, Mesosphere and Thermosphere.
Air is matter and is never completely dry. Water vapor ranges from almost zero to about 5% by volume.
What happens as water vapor content increases?
The percentage of other gasses decreases proportionally.
Air has weight. Since it is gaseous it is compressable. The pressure the atmosphere exerts on the surface is the result of the weight of the air above.
Thus the air is more dense at the surface so density and pressure decrease at higher altitudes.
What pressure are are lungs accomstomed to and what happens when this level is decreased?
3lbs per sq inch and Hypoxia.
Define Hypoxia and it's symptoms
A deficency of Oxygen. A feeling of exhaustion, an imparement of vision and finally unconsioness.
At what point does water freeze?, Boil?
Freezing at 0c or 32f
Boiling at 100c or 212f
The earth receives its heat from what source? What is it called when the earth returns this heat to the atmosphere?
The sun in the form of solar radiation.
The earth in turn radiates heat in the form of Terrestial Radiation.
Describe the differences between solar heating of water and land.
Likewise the differences in Terrestrial release between water and land.
Land absorbes heat much faster than water. And is likewise faster to release it energy back as Terrestrial Radiation.
Temperature variations resulting from the changes of day to night are known as ...
What causes temperature variations?
- Diuranial Variation.
- Seasonal Variation.
- Variation with Lattitude.
- Variations with Topography.
- Variations with Altitude.
Temperature usually decreases with altitude. This is known as ____________. and is ___ degrees per ______ feet.
- Lapse Rate
- 2 degrees per 1000 feet..
Describe an Inversion?
An increase of temperature with an increase in altitude.