term chap 10.txt

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term chap 10.txt
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chap 10
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  1. centeral nervous system - parts and functions
    includes brain and spinal cord. functions: receive and process information and to regulate all bodily activity
  2. CNS
    • centeral nervous system
    • Abbrev?
  3. peripheral nervous system - parts and functions
    parts: 12 pairs of cranial nerves nd 31 pairs pairs of peripheral spinal nerves. function: transmit nerve signals to and from the cenetral nervous system
  4. PNS
    peripheral nervous system
  5. ganglion
    nerve center made of a cluster of nerve cell bodies outside the CNS.
  6. plexus
    netword of intersecting spinal nerves
  7. ascending nerve tracts
    carry nerve impulses towards the brain
  8. descending nerve tracts
    carry nerve impulses away from the brain
  9. neurons
    basic cells of the nervous system that allow different parts of the body to communicate with each other
  10. dendritets
    root-like processes( extend out from the cell body) that receive impulses and conduct them to the cell body
  11. axon
    process that extends away from the cell body and conducts impulses away from the nerve cell
  12. terminal end of fibers
    branching fibers at the end of the axon that lead the nervous impulse from the axon to the synapse
  13. synapse
    spce betwen two neurons or between a neuron and a receptor organ
  14. neurotransmitters
    chemical susbstances that make it possible for messages to cross from the synapse of a neuron to the target receptor
  15. glial cells - functions and support
    support: support and protection for neurons. functions: surround neurons and hold them in place. 2. supply nutrients and O2 to neurons. 3. insulate one nuron from another. 4. destroy and remove dead neurons
  16. myelin sheath
    protective covering made up of glials cells
  17. meninges
    system of membranes that enclose the brain and spinal cord of the central nervous
  18. dura mater
    thick, touch, outermost membrane of the meninges
  19. dura
    • hard
    • MT?
  20. mater
    • mother
    • MT?
  21. cerebrospinal fluid also known as?
    • spinal fluid
    • MT?
  22. cerebrospinal fluid
    produced by special capillaries within the four ventricles located in the middle region of the cerebrum
  23. cerebral
    pertianing to the cerebrum or to the brain
  24. thalamus
    located below the cerebrum
  25. hypothalamus
    located below the thalamus
  26. cerebellum
    second-largest part of the rain. located at the back of the head elow the posterior portion of the cerebrum
  27. autonomic nervous system
    organized into two divisions. [1. sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous system] controls the involuntary actions of the body such as functioning of internal organs
  28. sympathetic nervous system
    prepares body for emergencies and stress by increasing the breatng rate, heart rate, and blood flow to muscles
  29. parasympathetic nervous system
    returns body to normal after a response to stress. maintains normal body functions during ordanary circumstances that are not emotionally or physically stressful
  30. anesthesiologist
    physician who specializes in administering anesthetic agens before and during surgery
  31. anesthetist
    medical professional who spec. in administering anesthesia but is not a physician, for example, a nurst anesthetist
  32. neurologist
    physician who specializ. in diagnosing and treating diseases and disorders of the nervou system
  33. psychiatrist
    physician who specializ. in diagnosin and treating chemical dependencies, emotional problems, and mental illness
  34. psychologist
    holds an advanced degree but not MD. evaluates and treats emotional problems and mental illness
  35. cephalalgia is also known as?
    • headache
    • MT?
  36. migrane headache
    preceded by a waning aura, characterized by throbbing pain on one side of the head
  37. encephalocele
    congenital herniation of brain tissue through a gap in the skull
  38. meningocele
    congenital herniation of the meninges through a defect in the skull or spinal column
  39. hydrocephalus
    condition in which excess cerebrospinal fluid accumulates in the ventricles of the brain
  40. meningitis
    inflammation of the meninges of the brain and spinal cord
  41. alzheimer's disease
    group of disorders involving the parts of the brain that control thought, memory, and language
  42. cognition
    describes the mental activities associated with thinking, learning, and memory
  43. dementia
    slowly progressive decline in mental abilities, including memory, thinking, and judgment, that is often ccompanied by personality changes
  44. encephalitis
    inflammation of the brain
  45. parkinson's disease
    chronic, degenerative central nervous disorder characterized by fine muscle remors, rigidity, and slow or shuffling gait
  46. PD
    • Parkinson's disease
    • abbrev?
  47. Reye's syndrome
    potentially serious or deadly disorder in children that is characterized by vomiting and confusion
  48. RS
    • Reye's syndrome
    • abbrev?
  49. tetanus also know as?
    • lockjaw
    • MT?
  50. tetanus
    acute and potentially fatal infection of the CNS caused by toxin produced by the tetanus bacteria
  51. concussion
    violent shaking up or jarring of the brain
  52. cerebral contusion
    bruising of the brain tissue as the result of a head injury that causes the brain to bounce against the rigid bone of the skull
  53. cranial hematoma
    collection of blood trapped in the tissues of the brain
  54. shaken baby syndrome
    results of a child being violently shaken by someone
  55. lethargy
    lowered level of consciousness maked by listlessness, drowsiness, and apath.
  56. stupor
    unresponsive state from which a person can be aroused only briefly and with vigorous, repeated attempts
  57. syncope also known as?
    • fainting
    • MT?
  58. syncope
    brief loss of consciousness caused by the decreased flow of blood to the brain
  59. coma
    profound (deep) state of unconsciousness marked by the absence of spontaneous eye movements, no response to painful stimuli, and lack of speech
  60. delirium
    acute condition of confusion, disorientations, disrodered thinking and memory, agitation, and hallucinations
  61. cerebrovascular accident also known as?
    • stroke
    • MT?
  62. cerebrovascular accident
    damage to the brain that occurs when the blood flow to the brain is disrupted because of blood vessel is either blocked or has ruptured
  63. ischemic stroke
    most common type of stroke in older ppl, occurs when flow of blood to the brain is blocked
  64. aphasia
    often caused by brain damage associated with a stroke, loss of ability to speak, write, and or comprehend the written or spoken word
  65. hemorrhagic stroke
    blood vessel in the brain leaks. when aneurysm (weak, balloon like enlargement of an artery wall, within the brain ruptures
  66. narcolepsy
    sleep disorder consisting of sudden and unctrollable brief episodes of falling asleep during the day
  67. myelitis
    inflammation of the spinal cord
  68. cervical radiculopathy
    nerve pain caused by pressure on the spinal nerve roots in the neck region
  69. multiple sclerosis
    progressive autoimmune disorder characterized by inflammation that causes demyelination of the myelin sheath
  70. amyotrophic lateral sclerosis also known as?
    • Lou Gehrig's disease
    • MT?
  71. amyotrophic lateral sclerosis
    rapidly progressive neurological disease that attacks the nerve cells responsible for controlling voluntary muscles
  72. Bell's palsy
    temporary paralysis of the seventh cranial nerve that causes paralysis only of the affected side of the face
  73. Guillain-Barre syndrome also known as?
    • infectious polyneuritis
    • official name?
  74. Guillain-Barre syndrome
    inflmmation of the myelin sheath of peripheral nerves
  75. sciatica
    inflammation of the sciatic nerve that results in pain, burning, and tingling along the course of the affected sciatic nerve through the thigh, leg, and foot
  76. trigeminal neuralgia
    characterized by severe lightning-like pain due to an inflammation of the fifth cranial nerve
  77. cerebral palsy
    condition characterize by poor muscle control, spasticity, speech defects, and other neurologic deficiencies due to damage that affects the cerebrum
  78. spasticity
    condition in which certain muscles are continously contracted
  79. palsy
    paralysis of a body part that is often accomanied by loss of feeling and uncontrolled body movements, such as shaking
  80. epilepsy
    chronic neurological condition characterized by recurrent episodes of seizures of carying severity
  81. seizure disorder also known as?
    • epilepsy
    • common name?
  82. seizure
    sudden surge of electrical activity in the brain that affects how a person feels or acts for a short time
  83. causalgia
    persistent, severe burning pain that usually follows an injury to a sensory nerve
  84. hyperesthesia
    condition of abnormal and excessive sensitivity to touch, pain, or other sensory stimuli
  85. paresthesia
    burning or prickling senstaion that is sually felt in the hands, arms, legs, or feet, but can also occur in other parts of the body
  86. peripheral neuropathy also known as?
    • peripheral neuritis
    • another name?
  87. peripheral neuropathy
    disorder of the nerves that carry information to and from the brain and spinal cord
  88. carotid ultrasonography
    ultrasound study of the carotid artery
  89. echoencephalography
    use of ultrasound imagining to diagnose a shift in the midline structures of the brain
  90. myelography
    radiographic study of the spinal cord after the injection of a contrast medium through a lumbar puncture
  91. anesthetic
    medication used to induce anesthesia. the aneshtetic may be topical, local, regional, or general
  92. epidural anesthesia
    regional anesthesia produced by injecting a local nesthetic into the epidural space of the lumbar or sacral region of the spine
  93. anxiety disorders
    mental conditions characterized by excessive, irrational dread of everyday situation, or fear that is out of proportion to the real danger in a situation
  94. obsessive-compulsive disorder
    anxiety disorder characterized by recurrent, unwanted repetitive thoughts or impulses and/or recurrent unwanted impulses to act
  95. panic attack
    characterized by a group of intense emotional feelings that incude apprehension, fearfulness, and terror
  96. PTSD
    • posttraumatic stress disorder
    • abbrev?
  97. posttraumatic stress disorder
    develp after an event involving actual or threatened death or injury to the individual or someone else, during which the person felt intense fear, helplessness, or horror
  98. acrophobia
    excessive fear of being in high places
  99. dyslexia also known as?
    • developmental reading disorder
    • MT?
  100. dyslexia
    learning disability characterized by substandard reading achievement due to the inability of the brain to process symbols
  101. claustrophobia
    bnormal fear of being in narrow or enclosed spaces
  102. factitious disorder
    condition in which an individual acts as if he or she has a physical or mental illness when he or she is not realy sick
  103. trichotillomania
    disorder characterized by the repeated pulling out of one's own hair
  104. delusion
    false personal belief that is maintained despite obvious proof or evidence to the contrary
  105. halucination
    sensory perception experienced in the absence of an external stimulation
  106. schizophrenia
    psycotic disorder usually characterized by withdraw from reality, illogical patterns of thinking, delusions, and hallucinations, and accompanied in cary degress by other emotional, behavioral, or intellectual disturbances
  107. hypochondriasis
    fearing that one has a serious illness despite appropriate medical eval and reassurance.
  108. delirium tremens
    disorder involving sudden and severe mental changes or seizures caused by abruptly stopping the use of alcohol

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