Latter prophets1- lecture 3
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Contrast (in 3 paragraphs) the difference between Israel’s faulty theology and Jonah’s understanding of God.
- Israel’s Faulty Theology
- *Israel considered that Yahweh was their God who existed to foster their interests.
- -Partly a result of their paganism
- -Israel viewed God like a pagan god who was to be manipulated.
- But more a result of their selfishness
- “God exists to satisfy my needs! Everything focuses on me and my needs.”
- *The fact that He might actually be concerned for their worst enemy (Assyria) was very shocking and disgusting.
- -Jonah suspected it might be so
- God repented of the evil he had planned for the Assyrians. God will gladly change his mind about coming disasters if we turn around. He is absolutely consistent and unchangeable. Jonah knew God was so consistent in his desire to bless the world that he would relent of his plans to destroy Assyria if they repented. God would love to forgive them. By contrast, pagans believed that if their god said destruction would happen, it would, no matter what people did.-
- -And Jonah was willing to die to prevent the possibility of God forgiving the Assyrians
- Jonah’s Understanding of God
- Jonah knew Exodus 34:6-7 and he feared it might apply to everyone.
- The Lord passed in front of Moses, proclaiming, "The LORD, the LORD, the compassionate and gracious God, slow to anger, abounding in love and faithfulness, maintaining love to thousands, and forgiving wickedness, rebellion and sin. Yet he does not leave the guilty unpunished; he punishes the children and their children for the sin of the parents to the third and fourth generation.” Ex. 34:6-7
Jonah knew God would forgive Israel if they repented. Therefore he feared God might forgive Israel’s enemies if they repented.
- Jonah knew that God might care for all His creatures – even Assyria, His tool.
- -God is the sole creator of heaven and earth and cares for his whole creation.
Who are these the key concepts of?-God is creator of the world and has dominion over all things.God has love and mercy for all, and seeks redemption for all.God has love and mercy for all people as much as he does for us.God is utterly consistent in His desire to bless persons whenever they meet the conditions and he will do it.-God commands His servants to proclaim His message to the nations, friend and foe.
Who are these the key concepts of? Yahweh is...• The Holy One of Israel.• The Sole Creator. (The gods are not the creators.)• Sovereign of the nations, Redeemer of the nations, who will flood to Jerusalem to worship him forever.- The Folly of Trusting the Nations-The Servant of the LordTrust – basis for ServanthoodGrace – motive and means of ServanthoodRighteous living by Grace – mark of Servanthood
List the key theme of Jonah (in 1 sentence) and of Isaiah (in 1 phrase).
- Jonah: God is Slow to Anger and Great of Mercy (chesed)
- Isaiah :Hope through Judgment
What does all of this say about Isaiah’s call and its position in chapter six of Isaiah?- Chapter 6 is placed where it is as the solution to the problem raised in Chapters 1-5.• Ch 1-5 - The Problem: How can disobedient Israel become a clean, pure Israel with a mission to the world? Ch 6 - The Answer: When Israel has an experience like Isaiah, a man of unclean lips, then they can become that pure nation. In his vision of the Lord, Isaiah is like a bale of hay before a blasting furnace. Completely undone, he has nothing to offer and cannot even repent. A seraph brings a coal from the altar to burn and cleanse Isaiah’s unclean lips to atone for his sin. Then, suddenly, Isaiah can hear God’s question, “Who will go for us? Whom shall we send?” Isaiah says, “Here I am, Lord, send me!” Because of his experience of God’s grace, Isaiah wants to be used by God for God’s sake. Like Isaiah, Israel needed to realize how desperately sinful she was. Then she would be in a position to hear God and be ready to receive a gracious deliverance. -The rest of the book broadly follows the outline of Chapter 6- A vision of the Lord, the Holy One of Israel-A vision of themselves, unable to live in His presence-Gracious deliverance-Commission to service-Mission to the world
Chapter 6 is an interpretive key for the rest of the book.
Chapters___1____ insist on actual righteous behavior and pronounce judgment when there is none.Chapters ____2____ say that Israel’s deliverance was merely because of the righteousness of God displayed on her behalf.God says, “By grace, I will make you like myself.”Is relationship to God merely a matter of birthright?
- (1)- Isaiah1-39
- (2)- Isaish 40-55
What does this say about the conflict in Isaiah chapters 1-39 and 40-55?-The remnant must indeed live objectively righteous lives (Chapters 1-39).-But that is only possible by means of that same grace revealed in Chapters 40-55.-Now the Servant comes as a Divine Warrior-To defeat sin in their lives-The result is that God’s light will come to the nations when His servants live out His righteousness by means of His grace.
Chapters 56-66 Resolve the Conflict
What is this portraying ?
1.In Chapters 40-48, all references but one (42:1ff.) are to the nation which will be a witness for God.
2.In Chapters 49-55, all references but one (54:17) are to the Ideal Servant (an individual) who will be for Jacob and the world what Jacob never was.
3.In Chapters 56-66 (notably 65:13-16), the servants are a remnant of the nation.
The three ways Isaiah uses the concept of “servant” in Chapters 40-66
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