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Nonspecific defense mechanisms consist of :
The 1st line of defense and the 2nd line of defense.
The specific defense mechanisms (immune system) consists of :
The 3rd line of defense.
Which defense mechanism provides protection against foreign invaders (remembers)?
Specific defense mechanism which is the body's 3rd line of defense.
What does the body's 1st line of defense consist of?
- "Surface barriers"
- -Intact skin
- -Mucous membranes and their secretions
- -Normal microbiota
What does the body's 2nd line of defense consist of?
- "Internal defenses"
- -Phagocytic white blood cells
- -Antimicribual proteins
- -The inflammatory response
- -Natural killer cells
What does the body's 3rd line of defense consist of?
- "Humoral & Cellular Immunity"
- -Lymphocytes (B & T cells)
- -Memory cells are produced
A protein produced in response to an antigen:
A foerign substance whose surface molecules are different from your own cells; "non-self markers":
Microorganism capable of producing disease; bacteria, viruses, fungi, protozoan, and parasites:
The body's 1st and 2nd lines of defense are known as the nonspecific, or ___ defenses.
The body's 3rd line of defense is known as the specific, or ___ defense.
In regards to your body's adaptive immunity, what are the two subgroups?
- -Humoral Immunity -- B cells
- -Cellular Immunity -- T cells
Adaptive immunity is ___ immunity.
Regarding the body's 2nd line of defense in immunity, what do the phagocytic white blood cells consist of?
Why are phagocytes important to innate/nonspecific immunity?
They attract, ingest, & digest harmful microbes with the help of lysosomal enzymes.
As a result of tissue injury, damaged cells release chemical signals such as:
histamines, prostaglandins, kinins, and leukotrienes.
After the chemical signals have been released from the damaged tissue, ___, fluid, and blood clotting elements moved to the damaged tissues to begin the healing process.
Regarding inflammation, increased blood flow is known as:
Vasodilation allows for increased vessel permeability, which is helpful for ___ ___.
After tissue damage, chemical signals are released to begin vasodilation to increase phagocyte migration. What is the next/final step?
Phagocytes (macrophages and neitrophils) consime phatogens and cell debris; tissue heals.
What are the 4 signs of acute imflammation?
Heat, redness, pain, and swelling.
Some, more severe cases of inflammation constitute a 5th sign. What is this sign?
Possible, temporary limitation of joint movement.
What line if defense is the body's complement involved with?
The 2nd line of defense.
The classical pathway of complement involves ___, water soluble protein molecules that the adaptive immune system produces to fight off foerign invaders.
Process that coats bacterial surfaces, which enhances phagocytosis:
The complement pathway can be thought of as a ___; each step catalyzes the next.
What does APC stand for?
Antigen presenting cell
The humoral immune response consists of the activity of __ cells, and the ___ they produce.
B & antibodies
The "generals" of the immune system are thought to be the ___ _ cells.
Helper T cells are activated by _ _ _s.
APC (antigen presenting cells)
What two types of cells does a B cell proliferate into once acativated by the Helper T cell?
Either a Memory B cell or a Plasma cell.
What is the purpose of the Memory B cell?
To help with long term immunity.
What is the purpose of the plasms cell that results from the activation of a B cell?
The plasma cell secretes antibodies against the antibody that activated them.
T-lymphocytes are associated with which type of immunity?
T-lymphocytes can be broken down into two groups:
- 1. Helper T cells
- 2. Cytotoxic T cells
What is the difference between a helper T cell and a cytotoxic T cell?
Helper t cells only secrete cytokines that activate other cells involved in humoral immunity, but cytotoxic T cells attack infected cells directly.
When a helper T cell activates a cytotoxic T cell, it can then split into either a long term ___ _ cell or a ___ _ cell.
memory T cell & killer t cell
What is the purpose of Killer T cells?
To attack and destroy infected, or abnormal body cells (like cancer cells)
Upon the second exposure to an antigen, the secondary immune response:
rapidly produces antibodies to fight the infecting microbes.
What are the two types of acquired immunity?
Natural and Artificial
What is the example for an active, naturally acquired immunity?
Infection; contact with the pathogen.
What is the example for an passive, naturally acquired immunity?
Antibodies pass from mother to fetus either through the placenta or through breast milk.
What is the example for an active, artifically acquired immunity?
Vaccine; dead or attenuated pathogens
What is the example for an passive, artificially acquired immunity?
Injection of immune serum (gamma globulin)
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