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In Piaget's Therory, actions or mental representations that organize knowledge.
Example: Representations of what the child thinks of when they see a dog. I.E: furry, cute, brown...etc
Piagets's concept of using existing schemes to deal with new information or experiences.
Example: A child learns the word "Car" and associates car's with car, along with assimilating other objects, like motorcycles and other moving objects into the child's existing scheme
Pigetian concept of adjusting schemes to fit new information and experiences.
Example: As the child learns that motorcyles are not the same as "cars" the child soon will exclude these to accomodate the characteristics of the cars scheme.
Grouping isolated behaviors and thoughts into higher order, more smoothly functioning system.
Mechanism that piaget proposed to explain how children shift from one stage of thought to another.
Example: The result of this process is that individuals go through four stages of development. A different way of understanding the world makes one stage more advanced than another.
- 1st Piaget stage; birth--->2 yrs old
- Infants contruct an understanding of the world by coordinating sensory experiences with mortoric actions
- "Sensory-----Motor" coordination
6 substages: simple reflexes; 1st habits/primary circular reactions; primary circular reaction; Secondary circular reaction; cordination of secondary circular reactions; tertiary circular reactions, novelty and curiosity; internalization of schems
- Piaget's 1st sensorymotor substage; 1st month after birth
- sensation and action are coordinated primarily through reflexive behavior.
1st habits and primary circular reactions
- 2nd sensorymotor substage;
- 1-4 months
- Infant coordinates sensation and two types of schemes; habits and primary circular reaction
Example:Habit=scheme based on a reflex that comes completely seperated from the eliciting stimulus
Primary Circular Reaction
scheme based on the attemt to reproduce and event that initially occured by chance
Secondary Primary Circular Reaction
- 3rd Sensorimotor substage
- 4-8 months
- infant becomes more object-oriented-moving beyond proccupation with self.
Coordination of secondary circular motion
- 4th sensorimotor stage;
- 8-12 months
- Actions become more outwardly directed, and infants coordinate schemes and act with intentionality.
Teritiary circular reactions, novelty, and curiosity
- 5th sensorimotor substage;
- 12-18 months
- infants become intrigued by the many properties of objects and by the many things they can make happen to the objects
Human curiosity; interest
Internalization of schemes
- 6th sensorimotor stage;
- 18-24 months
- infant develops ability to use primitive symbols
- Symbols: internalized sensory image that represents an event.
- Primitive symbols permit infant to think about concrete events without directly acting them out or perceiving them.
Understanding that objects and events continue to exist even when they cannot directly seen, heard, or touched
A child lacking this abilitywill love hide and seek
If infants search for the missing object, it is assumed they believe it continues to exsist.
- Also AB error;
- occurs when infants make the mistake of selecting the familiar hiding place (A) rather than the new hiding place (B) as they progress into substage 4 of the sensorimotor stages.
older children are less likely to make this mistake, because their object permenence is more developed
focusing of mental resources on select information
- When individuals focus on the same object and an ability to track another's behavior is present, one individual directs another's attention, and reciprocal interaction is present
- pointing and using words to get infants attention
- An example of infants learning from othes
- interchanges between infant and caregivers when learning language; when caregivers engage in joint attention the child will say thier first word earlier and develop a larger vocabulary
Infant retains memory over time
memory w/o conscious recolection; involves skills and routine procedures that are automatically performed.
- when most people think of memory they are thinking of exlicit memory;
- memory of facts and experiences that individuals consciously know and can state.
Frontal lobes, Hippocampus
Imitation that occurs after the delay of hours or days
An overall score that combines subscores in motor, language, adaptive, and personal-social domains in the Gesell assesment of infants.
Bayley scales of infant development
Scales developed by Nancy Bayley that are widely used in the assesment of infant development. Current version has three components: Mental, motor, and infant behavior profile
form of communication; whether spoken, written, or signed, that is based on the system of symbols
ability to produce an endless number of meaningful sentences using a finite set of words and rules
- sound system of language
- How they are used and how the are combined
units of meaning involved in word formation.
- A word, or part of a word that cannot be broken down into smaller meaningful parts
- "help"= one morpheme
- "help-er"= two morphemes
The ways words are combined to form acceptable phrases and sentences
The meaning of words in sentences
Example: Girl and Women share many semantic features, but differ semantically in regard to age.
Appropriate use of language in different contexts
The use of short and precise words w/o grammatical markers such as articles, auxilliary verbs, and other ocnnectives.
Example: "Mommy Give Ice Cream."
An area in the brain's left frontal lobe involved in speech production
An area of the brain's left hemisphere that is involved in language comprehenstion
L-Hemispher; Language comprehension
Loss or impairment of language ability caused by brain damage.
Occurs from damage to Broca's area or Wernicke's areas of the brain.
(LAD) Language Aquisition Device
Chomsky's term that describes a biological endowment that enables a child to detect the features and rules of language, including phonology, syntax, and semantics.
Chomsky believed that humans are biologically prewired to learn language at a certain time and in a certain way.
Language spoken in a higher pitch than normal with simple words and sentences.