Psych Chapter 5 Terms

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Psych Chapter 5 Terms
2011-02-17 14:21:47
Developmental Psychology Chapter Cognitive Development Infancy

Cognitive Development in Infancy
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  1. Schemes
    In Piaget's Therory, actions or mental representations that organize knowledge.

    Example: Representations of what the child thinks of when they see a dog. I.E: furry, cute, brown...etc
  2. Assimilation
    Piagets's concept of using existing schemes to deal with new information or experiences.

    Example: A child learns the word "Car" and associates car's with car, along with assimilating other objects, like motorcycles and other moving objects into the child's existing scheme
  3. Accomodation
    Pigetian concept of adjusting schemes to fit new information and experiences.

    Example: As the child learns that motorcyles are not the same as "cars" the child soon will exclude these to accomodate the characteristics of the cars scheme.
  4. Organization
    Grouping isolated behaviors and thoughts into higher order, more smoothly functioning system.
  5. Equilibration
    Mechanism that piaget proposed to explain how children shift from one stage of thought to another.

    Example: The result of this process is that individuals go through four stages of development. A different way of understanding the world makes one stage more advanced than another.
  6. Sensorimotor Stage
    • 1st Piaget stage; birth--->2 yrs old
    • Infants contruct an understanding of the world by coordinating sensory experiences with mortoric actions
    • "Sensory-----Motor" coordination

    6 substages: simple reflexes; 1st habits/primary circular reactions; primary circular reaction; Secondary circular reaction; cordination of secondary circular reactions; tertiary circular reactions, novelty and curiosity; internalization of schems
  7. Simple Reflexes
    • Piaget's 1st sensorymotor substage; 1st month after birth
    • sensation and action are coordinated primarily through reflexive behavior.
  8. 1st habits and primary circular reactions
    • 2nd sensorymotor substage;
    • 1-4 months
    • Infant coordinates sensation and two types of schemes; habits and primary circular reaction

    Example:Habit=scheme based on a reflex that comes completely seperated from the eliciting stimulus
  9. Primary Circular Reaction
    scheme based on the attemt to reproduce and event that initially occured by chance
  10. Secondary Primary Circular Reaction
    • 3rd Sensorimotor substage
    • 4-8 months
    • infant becomes more object-oriented-moving beyond proccupation with self.
  11. Coordination of secondary circular motion
    • 4th sensorimotor stage;
    • 8-12 months
    • Actions become more outwardly directed, and infants coordinate schemes and act with intentionality.
  12. Teritiary circular reactions, novelty, and curiosity
    • 5th sensorimotor substage;
    • 12-18 months
    • infants become intrigued by the many properties of objects and by the many things they can make happen to the objects

    Human curiosity; interest
  13. Internalization of schemes
    • 6th sensorimotor stage;
    • 18-24 months
    • infant develops ability to use primitive symbols
    • Symbols: internalized sensory image that represents an event.
    • Primitive symbols permit infant to think about concrete events without directly acting them out or perceiving them.
  14. Object Permanence
    Understanding that objects and events continue to exist even when they cannot directly seen, heard, or touched

    A child lacking this abilitywill love hide and seek

    If infants search for the missing object, it is assumed they believe it continues to exsist.
  15. A-not-B Error
    • Also AB error;
    • occurs when infants make the mistake of selecting the familiar hiding place (A) rather than the new hiding place (B) as they progress into substage 4 of the sensorimotor stages.

    older children are less likely to make this mistake, because their object permenence is more developed
  16. Attention
    focusing of mental resources on select information
  17. Joint Attention
    • When individuals focus on the same object and an ability to track another's behavior is present, one individual directs another's attention, and reciprocal interaction is present
    • pointing and using words to get infants attention

    • An example of infants learning from othes
    • interchanges between infant and caregivers when learning language; when caregivers engage in joint attention the child will say thier first word earlier and develop a larger vocabulary
  18. Memory
    Infant retains memory over time
  19. Implicit Memory
    memory w/o conscious recolection; involves skills and routine procedures that are automatically performed.
  20. Explicit Memory
    • when most people think of memory they are thinking of exlicit memory;
    • memory of facts and experiences that individuals consciously know and can state.

    Frontal lobes, Hippocampus
  21. Deferred imitation
    Imitation that occurs after the delay of hours or days
  22. Developmental Quotient
    An overall score that combines subscores in motor, language, adaptive, and personal-social domains in the Gesell assesment of infants.
  23. Bayley scales of infant development
    Scales developed by Nancy Bayley that are widely used in the assesment of infant development. Current version has three components: Mental, motor, and infant behavior profile
  24. Language
    form of communication; whether spoken, written, or signed, that is based on the system of symbols
  25. Infinite generativity
    ability to produce an endless number of meaningful sentences using a finite set of words and rules
  26. Phonology
    • sound system of language
    • How they are used and how the are combined
  27. Morphology
    units of meaning involved in word formation.

    • A word, or part of a word that cannot be broken down into smaller meaningful parts
    • "help"= one morpheme
    • "help-er"= two morphemes
  28. Syntax
    The ways words are combined to form acceptable phrases and sentences
  29. Semantics
    The meaning of words in sentences

    Example: Girl and Women share many semantic features, but differ semantically in regard to age.
  30. Pragmatics
    Appropriate use of language in different contexts
  31. Telegraphic speech
    The use of short and precise words w/o grammatical markers such as articles, auxilliary verbs, and other ocnnectives.

    Example: "Mommy Give Ice Cream."
  32. Broca's area
    An area in the brain's left frontal lobe involved in speech production
  33. Wernicke's area
    An area of the brain's left hemisphere that is involved in language comprehenstion

    L-Hemispher; Language comprehension
  34. Aphasia
    Loss or impairment of language ability caused by brain damage.

    Occurs from damage to Broca's area or Wernicke's areas of the brain.
  35. (LAD) Language Aquisition Device
    Chomsky's term that describes a biological endowment that enables a child to detect the features and rules of language, including phonology, syntax, and semantics.

    Chomsky believed that humans are biologically prewired to learn language at a certain time and in a certain way.
  36. Child-Directed Speech
    Language spoken in a higher pitch than normal with simple words and sentences.