Exam One

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Exam One
2011-02-17 15:38:46
Interpersonal Communication

chapters 1-4
Show Answers:

  1. Explain Contect Level vs Relationship Level
    • Content Level: What the message contains
    • Relationship Level: tells you how to interpret the content using metacommunication (verbal, nonverbal, or both)
  2. Describe the three times when we tune in highly to the relationship message
    • 1. when the message violates expectations
    • 2. in high intensity relationships
    • 3. when disagreement and conflicts arise
  3. What are the five misconceptions about communication in relationships?
    • 1. The Assumption of Consistancy
    • 2. The Assumption of Single Meaning
    • 3. The Assumption of Communicator Independence
    • 4. The Assumption of Obvious Causation
    • 5. The Assumption of Finality
  4. Explain the assumption of consistancy: what is the reality of communication
    • assumption:A person is always like that or always will be like that
    • Reality: life situations and communication contexts change, consistancy is in the eye of the beholder
  5. Explain the assumption of simple meaning: what is the reality of communication?
    • Assumption: What we say is what we mean, regardless of tone and body language
    • Reality: Non-verbal communication is as important as the worlds. We cannt take things a face value
  6. Explain the assumption of communicator independence: what is the reality of communication?
    • Assumption: We assume a person acts a certain way independently of how we act or what we say. We assume the things people say are completely independent for everything around the sitiation
    • Reality: We need to accept the responsibility for the conversation and others responses/actions
  7. Explain the assumptioin of obvious causation: what is the reality of communication?
    • Assumption: Some people jump to a concluion too quickly to why a person said or acted a certain way
    • Reality: Motivation and causes are usually conplex and well hidden
  8. Explain the assumption of finality: what is the reality of communication?
    • Assumption: We sometimes act as if something is finished in order to set other priorities for out avalible time and energy
    • Reality: People may compromise to disagree, but the issue in some form may arise minutes, months, or years later
  9. Give an example of assumption of consistancy
    "That's not what you said yesterday!"
  10. Give an example of assumption of simple meaning
    "You said it, you must have meant it!"
  11. Give an example of assumption of communicator independence
    "It wasn't my fault!"
  12. Give an example of assumption of obvious causation
    "You can't fool me, I know why you said that!"
  13. Give an example of assumption of finality
    "That settles it."
  14. What are the eight dimensions of interpersonal communication?
    • Narrow-Broad
    • Public-Private
    • Stylized-Unique
    • Difficult-Efficient
    • Rigid-Flexible
    • Awkward-Smooth
    • Hesitant-Spontaneous
    • Overt Judgement Suspended-Overt Judgement Given
  15. What does the term Narrow-Broad mean?
    During the process of coming together, we would predict communication that shows a gradually increasing amount of talk and a gradually increasing variety in the topics explored
  16. What does the term Public-Personal mean?
    Depth of social interaction. When first talking to someone, the things we reveal most likely reflect out public personality. Should the relationship move forward, we will increasingly uncover more and more of our private and personal selves
  17. What does the term Stylized-Unique mean?
    Process of constructiong a more intimate relationsuo eventually reaches a point of which we are interacting with the other person as a unique individual rather than a member of a particular society. Uniqueness in communication simply suggests that adoption of more idiosyncratic communication
  18. What does the term Difficult-Efficient mean?
    As a relationship grows and more of the person is revealed to us, there willbe increased accuracy, speed, and efficiency in our communication. Early relationsips pose a greater risk of being less accurate communication and slower progress because we realy on strerotypes and fewer channels
  19. What does the term Awkward-Smooth mean?
    As knowlsdge of the other person increaed, predictive ability also increases, which lead to greater synchronization of interaction. Each participant is well aware of mutual roles and plays them out ina smooth complementary fasion
  20. What does the term Hesitant-Spontaneous mean?
    We can make some general predictions about how most people react in a situation, but caution is the byword when little information on a specific person is avalible
  21. What does the term Overt Judgement Suspended-Overt Judgement Given mean?
    Although out first impression of another person probably involves a number of covert judgements, these evaulations are usually unspoken until the relationship has moved to an advanced stage
  22. What are the five stages of coming together?
    • 1. Initiating
    • 2. Experimenting
    • 3. Intensifying
    • 4. Integrating
    • 5. Bonding
  23. What are the five states of coming apart?
    • 1. Differentiating
    • 2. Circumscribing
    • 3. Stagnating
    • 4. Avoiding
    • 5. Terminating
  24. Characteristics of Communicating during Initiating
    first contact, greeting rituals, highly scripted, impersonal, polite
  25. Characteristics of Communicating during Experimenting
    Finding out (carefully) more about the person; offer smoall disclosure in hopes the other sill do the same; audition for future friendships
  26. Characteristics of Communicating during Intensifying
    • people are now close friends/partners, disclose more personal information, focus shifts from two "I"s to "we"
    • holding hands to making out to having sex
  27. Characteristics of Communicating during Integrating
    two individuals how identified as a pair, coupling: share self-symbols with other; common property
  28. Characteristics of Communicating during Bonding
    Announce commitment to each other, formally recognize commitment
  29. Characteristics of Communicating during Differentiating
    Instead of focusing on "we" focus back on "I"s; focus on individual differences instead of similarities
  30. Characteristics of Communicating during Circumscribing
    quality (depth) and quanitity (breadth) of interactions decrease; two many topics are dangerous and therefore, off limits for discussion
  31. Characteristics of Communicating during Stagnating
    No longer relate to each other, think they already know what the other will say; relationship "rut": just going through the motions
  32. Characteristics of Communicating during Avoiding
    Effort made to be apart, avoiding unpleasent contact, end is near, physical avoidance
  33. Characteristics of Communicating during Terminating
    Bonds severed, Relationships Ends
  34. What is an example of Initiating
    • " Hi. How ya doing?"
    • "Fine. You?"
  35. Characteristics of Communicating during Experiementing
    • "You like to ski? So do I!"
    • "You do? Great! Where do you go?"
  36. Characteristics of Communicating during Intensifying
    • "I...think I love you."
    • "I love you too."
  37. Characteristics of Communicating during Integrating
    • "I feel so much a part of you"
    • "Yeah, we're like one person. What happens to you, happens to me."
  38. Characteristics of Communicating during Bonding
    • "I want to be with you always"
    • "Let's get married"
  39. Characteristics of Communicating during Differentiating
    • "I just don't like social gatherings"
    • "I don't understand you...I'm not like you at all!"
  40. Characteristics of Communicating during Circumscribing
    • "Did you have a good time on your trip?"
    • "What's for dinner?"
    • (Don't really want top talk about it)
  41. Characteristics of Communicating during Stagnating
    • "I'm too busy..."
    • "No problem"
  42. Characteristics of Communicating during Terminating
    • "I'm leaving you, don't bother trying to contact me"
    • "Don't worry, I won't!"
  43. Name the six assumptions about the interaction stages
    • 1. Descriptive-not prescriptive
    • 2. Simplifies a complex process
    • 3. Relevant for many types of relationships
    • 4. Applies to voluntary and involuntary relationships
    • 5. Focus on dyads, but also socal networks
    • 6. Associated with dimentions of communication
  44. What are the five dimentions of movement through the interaction stages?
    • 1. Movement is generally systematic and sequential
    • 2. Movement may be forward
    • 3. Movement may be backward
    • 4. Movement occurs within stages
    • 5. Movement is always to a new place
  45. Explain Dialectical Theory
    • change takes place as a result of trying to resolve the inevitable tensions of relationship life
    • want to maintain togetherness with partner, but at any given pont we may make autonomy and individual needs a priority
    • need a balance of both togetherness and separteness to maintain a relationship
  46. Explain Integration-Separation
    • relationships require each partner remain an individual while at the sma etime merging that self with his or her partner
    • too much or too little togetherness will create the tension that will initiate changes
    • partners will blend efficiently into a larger social system without losing their unique pair identity
  47. Explain Expression-Nonexpression
    • Beginning relationshps are often charactierized by effprts to seek information from another and provide information about yourself to this other, a counterforce against revealing too much too soon
    • We know er need expression to acheieve intimacy; we also know that we make outself and our relationship more vulnerable by doing so
  48. Explain Stability-Change
    • In order to be comfortable with another person, a certain amound of predictablilty is necessary. Without predictable pattern, there is too much undertainty and ambivalence for a long-term relationship-we need someone we know we can count on in certain predicatble ways
    • Partners are continually wrestiing with stable, predictable actions versus changing, novel ones
  49. What is cultural information?
    • With strangers form this culture, shares some predictable ways of behaving and thinking
    • assume a person has knowledge in certain cultural happenings
  50. What is socialogical information?
    • A persons reference and membership groups used in casual social gatherings (as we gain information about a person)
    • Ex: feminist, physician, Southern Baptist
  51. What is psychological information?
    • Recognizes the individual difference associated with ones conversational partner
    • Mark differences in small talk of starangers, people fom very different cultures, close relationships, and relationships of name only
  52. What is coupling?
    • The extent to which each intimate thries to give the other his or her own self-symbols or to correct the others self-symbols measure the degree to which he wants to increase their communication
    • share self-symbols with one another
  53. What is distance?
    • An attempt to put psychological and physical barriers between two communicators
    • Might take form of actual physical separation, or it may be embedded n nonverbal messages
  54. What is disassociation?
    • Found in messages that are essentially preparing one or both individuals for their continued life without each other
    • increasing concern fro one's own self interests, emphasizing differences
  55. What is norm of reciprocity
    • There is a strong tendency on the part o human beings to respond in kind to the behavior they receive
    • conscious choice to respond in kind
  56. What is imitation?
    • the reciprocated response usually follows soon after the initial response and is generally less conscious
    • unconscious tendency to respond in kind
  57. What is emotional contagion?
    • One person's feelings state is assumed and reflected by others presents, would also seem to fall within the realm of imitation
    • emotional imitation
  58. What is social exchange theory?
    • The social relatioships, we are constantly exchanging resources (e.g., love, status, information, emotions, money, goods, services)
    • These resources are evaluated by us as rewarding or not
    • People have a tendancy to seek those things that are rewarding the them.
  59. Explain Equity
    • equity is at the heart of effective resource exchange in relationships.
    • partners in both happy and unhappy marriages pay attention to matters of equity in their relationship
    • this theory predicts relationship patterns will be most satisifed with their relationships when the ratio of benefits to contributions is similar for both of them
  60. Explain inequity
    inequity occurs when one partner is percived as underbenefited relative to the other
  61. What are five ways that equity can be restored?
    • 1. By obtaining increased benefits/rewards within the relationship
    • 2. Bt decreasing his or her contibutions to the relationship
    • 3. By psychologically reinterpreting one's position so it no longer seems underbenefited
    • 4. By obtaining additional benfits or rewards outside the relationship
    • 5. By terminating the relationship
  62. What is the equality rule?
    each partner is perceived as contributing equality and benifiting equally
  63. What is the need based rule?
    • people don't exchange resources because of a desire for equily or equaility or for the most rewards possible
    • people exchange resources in response to their perceptionn of their partners needs
  64. What are rewards?
    pleasures, satification, and gratification
  65. What are costs?
    sny factors that operate to inhibit or defer a performatnce of a sequence of behavior
  66. Explain costs and rewards
    They get what they give
  67. Definition of Immediacy
    • the degree of liking between communicators
    • "we" has more immediacy than "I"
  68. Explain Inclusion
    • to include others in activites and be included in theirs
    • most of us try to maintain a balance between being together and being alone-between giving inclusion to others and being included by others
    • fear of abandonment/isolation, need to construct lives so others will include us
    • tend to associate extraversion with stron inclusion needs, absence or inclusion can be fatal, relational suppost is vital to coping with mental and physical illness, crises, transitions, and stressors
    • key to fulfillinf inclusion needs is riciprocy
  69. Explain Control
    • to exert control over others and have them control us
    • each of us needs the feeling that sometimes we're in charge of situations; at other times, we want others to be in charge and don't mind assuming a more submissive role
    • most people desire balance
  70. Explain Affection
    • to give others affection and receive it from them
    • to like an dbe liked by others is important to our interpersonal health. even though we may find momentary distateful, the opposite of affection-hostility, anger, coldness-can also be important to us
    • intimate behavior-rewarding, supportive, generous, cooperative, sympathetic, warm, sensitive behavior
  71. What are three strageties used to maintain control?
    • 1. Giving illusion of control/freedom-giving permission to control
    • 2. Overhelping-helping others to be able to claim success
    • 3. Sandbaggine-displaying weakness so others will ower gaurd, then attacking
  72. Explain Symetrical Realtionships
    • equality, what one gives the other wants to receive
    • productive if both see others individuality and respects rights and needs
  73. Explain Complementary Relationships
    • Differences; one leads, other follows
    • Producitve if both maintain estabilished roles
  74. What are four reasons why analyzing communication can be difficult
    • 1. We are unaware of our needs, which can be changing from situation to situation, time to time
    • we are many different selves, not a single, real self
    • 2. For various reasons, we may repress certain needs
    • 3. We may distort the strength of a particular need by producing a favorable perception of ourselves to fulfill out need for self-seteem
    • 4. We many also avoid talking to others about our interpersonal needs which, in turn, provides us with less understanding and awareness of those needs
  75. Explain self-fulfillinf prophecy
    • consciously or unconsciously, we sometimes behave in such a wayt aht our perceptions of others must be confirmed
    • Ex: assume someone is hostile, be defensive, he/she becomes hostile, and you were right
  76. What are the four barriers to perceptions
    • 1. concealment
    • 2. same verbal/nonverbal behavior: two different meanings
    • 3. selective interaction: interaction with only people like us
    • 4. undue weight on momentary behavior
  77. Explain interpersonal needs to infants and children
    needs from parents, not much control
  78. Explain interpersonal needs to adolescence
    inclusion and affection from peers, want more control
  79. Explain interpersonal needs to adults
    inclusion and affection from family and friends, added responsibility
  80. Explain interpersonal communication for older adults
    more time, fewer friends, more isolated, less control as health declines
  81. Traditional sex roles for males
    repress emotions, show only in certain situations
  82. Tratitional sex roles for females
    can show emotions
  83. Intrumental and affective behavoirs for men
    insturmental, individual acheivement, activities
  84. Instrmental and affective behaviors for females
    affective, relationships, communication
  85. Describe Vision One
    • life: relatively unchanging and consistant
    • happiness: thinking of otheres, avoiding conflict, togetherness
    • important ideas: making good impressions putting aside genuine feelings, living up to predetermined standards
  86. Time period for vision I
    1950s to early 1960s
  87. Describe Vision II
    • Life, relationships: constantly changing
    • Self sacfiice forsake, instead, be your "real" self, conflict not avoided
    • any feeling could be aired-express yourself
    • communication is human relationship
  88. Time period for vision II
    early 1960s to early 1970s
  89. Describe Vision III
    • takes middle ground between visions I and II; doesn't focus just on others or self
    • Equality is an imporatnt component; balance
    • Knowledge (of self and others) is required
  90. Time period for vision III
    1990s to now
  91. Explain Formaliy in an Enviroment
    • decor, functions, wearing appearl, presence/absence of others
    • as formaily increases, communication has less depth and breadth
  92. Expalin Warmth in an Environment
    • More than temperature. woodwork, carpeting, soft chairs and lighting, drapes, soundproofing
    • warm=more apt to linger, frelax, and feel comfortable
    • Greater warmth, more personal, spontaneous, and efficient
  93. Explain Privacy in an Environment
    • Doors and walls, enclosed spaces, others can't freely enter or overhear conversation
    • privacy allows an engagment in solitary activitues, created oppurtunity for intamacy, allows us to share something specail, gives oppurtunity to open up to those we trust
    • encourages closer speaking distances, greater depth and breadth, more flexability, and sponinality
  94. Explain Familiarity in an Environment
    • we perfer familiar places
    • less awkward/difficult, less hesitant/uncertain, allows for greater flexability
  95. Expalin Constraint in an Environment
    • whether and how easily we can leave the situation
    • people disclose less in situations where long term commitment in confined situations were expected
  96. Explain Distance in an Enviroment
    • How for away/close environement forces us to conduct our communication with someone both physically and psychologically
    • intamacy shrinks distance barrier when setting forces close distance, we try to physchologically increase the distance.
  97. How are relationships affected by chages (four ways)
    • 1. affects expectations for how long relationships last
    • 2. Affects trust, support, and long term commitment desired in relationships
    • 3. Wider range or aquaintances/friends possible
    • 4. Increases number of communication channels
  98. Expalin Cultural Environment
    • Greater variety of relationship styles avalible
    • Families are very different than they were decades ago
  99. What are four ways to preserve warmth/closeness whiling holding onto newfound freedoms/
    • 1. know people who share your concerms
    • 2. know dependable people
    • 3. have one or more close, accessible friend
    • 4. know people who respect your competence
  100. What does giving/getting mean
    • you get what you put in
    • self denial and self sacrifice
    • up to late 1950s
  101. What is cultural narcissism
    • "me decade" disenchantment; became preoccupied with self-imporvment and satisfactoion
    • later 1960s to late 1970s
  102. What is Commitment to Interpersonal relationships
    • emphasizes commitment to others; recognize centrality or relationships to our lives
    • 1990s to now
  103. Define Physical Enviroment
    • people perceptions of environment
    • past experiences in that environment
    • existing relationship (stranger, friend, enemy)
    • purpose for communication (small talk, marriage proposal, counseling)

    the environement acts upon us, but we also act upon the environment
  104. Explain the Natural Environment
    • time of day, weather, temperature and boramter pressure, noise
    • extremely hold/cold temp increases irritability and depression
    • barometer pressure down, mood decreases
    • temp and humidity increases, interpersonal affection decreases and agressive acts increase
  105. Explain architecure in an environment
    walls, room size, lighting, materials (wood, metal, tile, cloth) soundproofing, doors, hallways, fences, etc
  106. Presnece/abesence of other people in an environment
    • we behave differently if other peope are present
    • others can be active, passive, or treated like a "non-person"