Human Physiology Cells and Molecules

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Author:
ffloyd
ID:
67100
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Human Physiology Cells and Molecules
Updated:
2011-03-10 17:00:31
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EXAM1 how things get into cells
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Human Phys flashcards for exam 1
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  1. Rules for PASSIVE DIFFUSION:

    #1 - Molecules diffuse from areas of ____ concentration to ______ concentration
    Molecules diffuse from area of HIGHER concentration to an area of LOWER concentration.
  2. Define SYMPORTER
    Diffusion of one solute and simultaneously or sequentially, a second solute in the same direction.

    (2 in)
  3. Rules for PASSIVE DIFFUSION:

    #2 - It is a ________ process that ______ require an outside energy source
    It is a PASSIVE process that DOES NOT require an outside energy source.

    It uses only the kinetic energy of molecular movement
  4. Rules for PASSIVE DIFFUSION:

    #3 - There is a net movement until ______________
    There is a net movement until CONCENTRATION IS EQUAL


    Known as "DYNAMIC EQUILIBRIUM"
  5. Rules for PASSIVE DIFFUSION:

    #4 - Diffusion is ______over short distances, _________over longer distances
    Diffusion is RAPID over short distances, SLOWER over longer distances


    Diffusion time increases in proportion to the square of the distance
  6. Rules for PASSIVE DIFFUSION:

    #5 - Diffusion is ___________ to temperature
    Diffusion is DIRECTLY RELATED to temperature

    At higher temp, molecules move faster and diffusion is more rapid
  7. Rules for PASSIVE DIFFUSION:

    #6 - Diffusion is _____________to molecule size
    Diffusion is INVERSELY RELATED to molecule size.

    The larger the molecule, the slower it will diffuse.
  8. Rules for PASSIVE DIFFUSION:

    #7 - Diffusion can take place _________ or ____________that separates two systems
    Diffusion can take place in an open system or across a partition that separates two systems
  9. Rules for PASSIVE DIFFUSION:

    #8 - Diffusion depends on ability of molecule to dissolve in ___________
    Depends on ability of molecule to dissolve in LIPID BILAYER.

    (ie - steroids)
  10. Rules for PASSIVE DIFFUSION:

    #9 - Diffusion rate is ____________ to the surface area of the membrane
    Diffusion rate is directly proportional to the surface area of the membrane

    Larger surface area, more molecules can diffuse across per unit time
  11. Rules for PASSIVE DIFFUSION:

    #10 - Diffusion rate is _________to membrane thickness
    Diffusion rate is inversely proportional to membrane thickness.

    The thicker the membrane, the slower the rate of diffusion
  12. Facilitated Diffusion involves specialized __________ molecules.
    (Integral) proteins
  13. Define UNIPORTER
    Diffusion of a single solute from one side of the membrane only

    (1 in)
  14. Define ANTIPORTER
    Diffusion of one solute and simultaneously or sequentially, a second solute in the opposite direction

    (1 in 1 out)
  15. What causes cystic fibrosis?
    A defect in the gated channel protein that normally transports Cl- ions

    The protein is called CYSTIC FIBROSIS TRANSMEMBRANE REGULATOR (CFTR)
  16. Describe ACTIVE TRANSPORT
    ATP is used to pump substances against their gradient in order to maintain a certain concentration.

    (i.e.- Na/K pump keeps Na outside and K within the cell)
  17. Describe how the sodium/potassium pump works
  18. What is RECEPTOR-MEDIATED ENDOCYTOSIS?
    A process by which cells internalize molecules (endocytosis) by the inward budding of plasma membrane vesicles containing proteins with receptor sites specific to the molecules being internalized
  19. What are the 3 main purposes of EXOCYTOSIS?
    1) Restore certain amounts of plasma membrane

    2) Secretion

    3) Integral proteins that were interacting with the interior of the cell are now displayed at the cell surface.

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