Anatomy & Physiology

Card Set Information

Author:
Anonymous
ID:
67108
Filename:
Anatomy & Physiology
Updated:
2011-02-17 16:55:47
Tags:
abby elkins anatomy physiology
Folders:

Description:
Exam 1
Show Answers:

Home > Flashcards > Print Preview

The flashcards below were created by user Anonymous on FreezingBlue Flashcards. What would you like to do?


  1. Study of the structure of living organisms
    Anatomy
  2. Study of the function of living organisms
    Physiology
  3. Branch of anatomy dealing with the microscopic structure of cells
    Cytology
  4. Branch of anatomy dealing with the microscopic structure of tissues
    Histology
  5. A state of body equilibrium or stable internal environment of the body
    Homeostasis
  6. The most common homeostatic control mechanism. The net effect is that the output of the system shuts off the original stimulus or reduces its intensity
    Negative Feedback
  7. Tends to cause the level of a variable to change in the same direction as an initial stimulus
    Positive Feedback
  8. What a structure can do depends on its specific form
    *Function is determined by structure
    Complenmentarity of Structure and Function
  9. Levels of Organization
    Chemical - Cellular - Tissue - Organ - Organ System - Organismal
  10. Chemical - Cellular - Tissue - Organ - Organ System - Organismal
    Levels of Organization
  11. Atoms (tiny building blocks of matter) combine to form molecules. In specific ways, molecules form organelles.
    Chemical
  12. Cells- smallest units of living things. Cells have some common functions. Vary in size and shape.
    Cellular
  13. Groups of similar cells
    Tissues
  14. Four basic types of tissues
    • Epithelium
    • Muscle
    • Connective
    • Nervous
  15. Epithelium
    Muscle
    Connective
    Nervous
    Four basic types of tissues
  16. Covers body surface, lines cavities
    Epithelium
  17. Provides movement
    Muscle
  18. Supports and protects body organs
    Connective
  19. Provides internal communication by electrical impulses
    Nervous
  20. Structure of at least two tissues. Extremely complex functions become possible.
    Organ
  21. Stomach-lining is an __(a)__ (produces digestive juices). __(b)__ churns and mixes stomach contents. __(c)__ reinforces soft muscular walls. __(d)__ fibers increse digestion by stimulating muscle to contract vigorously and glands secrete more digestive juices.
    • Epithelium lines stomach
    • Muscle chuns and mixes
    • Connective reinforces soft muscular walls
    • Nerve increase digestion
  22. Organs work together
    Organ System
  23. __ and __ circulate blood to carry oxygen and nutrients to body cells
    • Heart
    • Blood Vessels
  24. ALL structural levels working together to keep us alive
    Organismal
  25. Inegumentary
    Skeletal
    Muscular
    Nervous
    Endocrine
    Cardiovascular
    Lymphatic/ Immunity
    Respiratory
    Digestive
    Urinary
    Reproductive
    11 Systems
  26. 11 Systems
    • Inegumentary
    • Skeletal
    • Muscular
    • Nervous
    • Endocrine
    • Cardiovascular
    • Lymphatic/ Immunity
    • Respiratory
    • Digestive
    • Urinary
    • Reproductive
  27. Skin; protects deeper tissues from injury
    Integumentary
  28. Muscle; allows manipulation of the environment, locomotion, and facial expressions
    Muscular
  29. Nerves; responds to internal and external changes
    Nervous
  30. Glands; secrete hormones that regulate growth, reproduction, and metabolism
    Endocrine
  31. Blood vessels; transport blood carrying oxygen and nutrients
    Cardiovascular
  32. Lymphatics; picks up leaked fluid, disposes of debris, houses white blood cells. Attacks against foreign substances.
    Lymphatic/ Immunity
  33. Lungs; keeps blood supplied with oxygen, removes carbon dioxide
    Respiratory
  34. Stomach; breaks down food
    Digestive
  35. Bladder; eliminates nitrogenous wastes, regulates water, electrolytes and acid-base balance of blood
    Urinary
  36. Privates; produce offspring
    Reproductive
  37. Maintain boundaries
    Movement
    Responsiveness
    Digestion
    Metabolism
    Excretion
    Reproduction
    Growth
    Eight characteristics of life
  38. Eight characteristics of life
    • Maintaing boundaries
    • Movement
    • Responsiveness
    • Digestion
    • Metabolism
    • Excretion
    • Reproduction
    • Growth
  39. Cellular level- membrane keeps insides in and outsides out
    Maintaing Boundaries
  40. Within body- blood, food
    Whole body- locomotion
    Movement
  41. Responds to body and makes adjustments
    Responsiveness
  42. Breakdown of food/ absorption to be used for energy
    Digestion
  43. Chemical reactions of body cells, provides energy for life
    Metabolism
  44. Breakdown of AB -> A + B; release energy
    Catabolism
  45. Build-up A + B -> AB; consumes energy
    Anabolism
  46. Removal of waste products
    Excretion
  47. Formation of new cells for growth repair, replace (cellular), production of new individual (organism)
    Reproduction
  48. Increase in size of body part/ organism increase size of body/ number of cells
    Growth
  49. Nutrients
    Water
    Oxygen
    Temperature
    Atmospheric Pressure
    Five things necessary for survival
  50. Five things necessary for survival
    • Nutrients
    • Water
    • Oxygen
    • Temperature
    • Atmospheric Pressure
  51. Energy and cell building; carbs, proteins, fats, vitamins, etc.
    Nutrients
  52. 70% of body
    Water
  53. Necessary for cells to generate energy
    Oxygen
  54. Affect rates of reactions
    Temperature
  55. For adequate breathing, gas exchange
    Atmospheric Pressure
  56. Balance of Internal Conditions
    Homeostasis
  57. Homeostasis
    Balance of internal conditions
  58. Effector acts to reduce/ reverse the initial stimulus
    Negative Feedback Mechanisms
  59. Eat 4 jelly donuts, blood sugar goes up, insulin released, blood sugar and insulin levels go down
    Blood Sugar
  60. Effector acts to increase initial stimulus
    Positive Feedback Mechanisms
  61. Tear/break blood vessel, exposes collagen tissue, platelets stick to collagen fibers, platelets release chemical, pile-up of platelets cause clot
    Blood Clotting
  62. Increases risk of illness
    Homeostatic Imbalance
  63. Occupies space and has mass
    Matter
  64. Has the capacity to do work/ put matter into motion
    Energy
  65. The building blocks of matter
    Atoms
  66. Inside the nucleus
    Protons and Neutrons
  67. In the outer orbital rings
    Electrons
  68. Particle: Proton
    Weight:
    Charge:
    • 1 amu (atomic mass unit)
    • +
  69. Particle: Neutron
    Weight:
    Charge:
    • 1 amu (atomic mass unit)
    • 0 neutral
  70. Particle: Electron
    Weight:
    Charge:
    • 0 amu (atomic mass unit)
    • or .005 amu
    • -
  71. ~~~~~~~~~~
    |.........1 <-----|----- __(a)__
    |.........H <----|------ __(b)__
    |......1.008 <--|------ __(c)__
    |___________|
    • a) atomic number
    • b) symbol
    • c) mass
  72. # protons = # _____
    Electrons
  73. Mass # = # ____ + # _____
    protons, neutrons
  74. Valence e- = # _____ in valence shell
    Electrons
  75. Different forms of an element
    Different # neutrons
    Isotope
  76. Radioactive isotope- unstable isotope that gives off energy (radiation) as it converts to a more stable form
    Radioisotopes
  77. Resulting substance when two or more atoms of the same element combine
    Molecules
  78. Formation of molecules when tow or more different kinds of atoms bind
    Compound
  79. Homogeneous mixtures of components that may be solids, liquids, or gases. Some composition throughout
    Solutions
  80. (emulsions) are hetergeneous mixtures; their composition is dissimilar in different areas of the mixture. Milky looking. Appears translucent
    Colloids
  81. Heterogeneous mixtures with large, often visible solutes that tend to settle out
    Suspensions
  82. Same
    Homogeneous or Heterogeneous?
    Homogeneous
  83. Different
    Homogeneous or Heterogeneous
    Heterogeneous
  84. In which the substance is being dissolved
    Solvent
  85. The substance being dissolved
    Solute
  86. unstable, valence shell not full, reactive
    Chemically Active
  87. stable, valence shell full, non-reactive
    Chemically Inert
  88. Process where one or more electrons are transferred from the valence shell from one atom to the valence shell of another atom
    Ionic Bonding
  89. Sharing of electrons to form molecular substances. Usually occur between atoms of the same elements. Also more likely to occur than ionic bonds when atom has 3, 4, 5 valence electrons
    Covalent Bonds
  90. When atoms in a covalent bond don't share e- equally, it becomes _____ _____
    Electrically Unbalanced
  91. Different areas of the molecule are slightly charged
    Polar
  92. When atoms in a covalent bond are sharing e- equally
    Nonpolar
  93. There are two factors that determine the polarity of a covalent molecule
    shape and electronegativity
  94. A weak bond in which a hydrogen atom forms a bridge between 2 e-.
    Doesn't bind atoms together, but binds molecules together.
    Hydrogen Bonding
  95. Hydrogen bonding binds ____ together.
    Molecules
  96. Chemical reaction in which larger, more complex atoms or molecules are formed from simpler ones.
    Synthesis Reaction
  97. Chemical reaction in which a molecule is broken down into or its constituent atoms
    Decomposition Reaction
  98. Chemical reaction in which bonds are both made and broken; atoms become combined with different atoms
    Displacement (exchange) Reaction
  99. Chemical reaction that absorbs energy, e.g., an anabolic reaction
    Endergonic Reaction
  100. Chemical reaction that releases energy, e.g., a catabolic or oxidative reaction
    Exergonic Reaction
  101. When this increases, the kinetic energy of its particles and their collisions increase.
    Temperature
  102. Chemical reactions progress rapidly when there are more reacting particles because the chance of a successful collison is greater. When the concentration of a reactant declines, the reaction slows.
    Concentration
  103. Smaller particles move faster than larger ones
    Size
  104. These are substances that increase the rate of chemical reactions without themselves being chemically changed or part of the product without the presence of catalysts, most chemical reactions would proceed far too slowly to maintain life.
    Catalysts
  105. Difference between organic and inorganic compounds.
    Organic contains carbon
  106. Contains carbon. Covalently bonded molecules. Many are large.
    Organic
  107. Considered all other chemicals in the body. Include water, salts, and many acids and bases.
    Inorganic
  108. Process by which a large molecules are synthesized by removing water and covalently bonding smaller molecules together.
    Dehydration Synthesis
  109. A chemical reaction in which larger, more complex atoms or molecules are formed from simpler ones.
    Synthesis
  110. Process in which water is used to split a substance into smaller particles
    Hydrolysis
  111. Four most common elements in the human body
    • Carbon
    • Hydrogen
    • Nitrogen
    • Oxygen
  112. Most abundant compund in the human body
    Water (H2O)
  113. Body's major macromolecules: ___, ___, ___, ___.
    • Carbohydrates
    • Lipids
    • Proteins
    • Nucleic Acids (DNA and RNA)
  114. Building blokcs: monosaccharides
    Carbohydrates
  115. One sugar
    Monosaccharides
  116. Double Sugar
    Disaccharides
  117. Many sugar
    Polysaccharides
  118. Carbohydrates function?
    Provides a ready, easily used source of cellular fuel
  119. Building blocks: fatty acids and glycerol
    Lipids
  120. Neutral fats (fats when solid, oils when liquid)
    Triglycerides
  121. Function: insulate the deeper body tissues from heat loss and protect them from mechanical trauma
    Tryglycerides
  122. Modified Triglycerides. Phosphorus- containing group and two fatty acid chains.
    Phospholipids
  123. Function: Chief material for building cellular membranes
    Phospholipids
  124. Flat molecules made of four interlocking hydrocarbon rings.
    Steroids
  125. Fat soluble and contain little oxygen.
    Steroids
  126. Raw material for synthesis of Vitamin D, steroid hormones, and bile salts.
    Cholesterol

    Steroids
  127. Diverse lipids found in all cell membranes.
    Eicosanoids
  128. Play role in blood clotting, regulation of blood pressure, inflamation, and labor contractions.
    Prostaglandis

    --Eicosanoids
  129. Building blocks: amino acids
    Proteins
  130. Collagen, keratin, elastin, and certain contractile proteins of muscle.
    Chief building materials of the body.
    Fibrous Proteins
  131. Hemoglobin, lipoproteins, albumin, insulin, antibodies.
    Globular Proteins
  132. Various functions include:
    increase of rate of chemical reactions
    transports oxygen in blood
    transports lipids and cholesterol
    prevent wide swings in blood pH
    regulate metabolic activity, growth, and development
    recognize and inactivate foreign substances
    enhance immune and inflammatory responses
    aid folding of new proteins
    transport metal ions
    promote breakdown of damaged proteins
    Globular Proteins
  133. Building blocks: nucleotides
    Nucleic Acids (DNA and RNA)
  134. Found in nucleus
    DNA
  135. Replicates itself before a cell divides AND provides the basic instructions for building every protein in the body
    DNA
  136. Located outside nucleus
    RNA
  137. Carry out instructions for protein synthesis
    RNA
  138. Primary, Secondary, Tertiary, Quaternary
    Levels of protein structure
  139. Levels of protein structure
    • Primary
    • Secondary
    • Tertiary
    • Quaternary
  140. The sequence of amino acids forms the plypeptide chain
    Primary Structure
  141. The primary chain forms spirals (a-helices) and sheets (B-sheets)
    Secondary Structure
  142. Superimposed on secondary structure. a-Helices and/or B-sheets are folded up to form a compact globular molecule held together by intramolecular bonds
    Tertiary Structure
  143. Two or more polypeptide chains, each with its own tertiary structure, combine to form a functional protein.
    Quaternary Structure
  144. The promary chain is coiled to form a spiral structure, which is stabalized by hydrogen bonds.
    a-Helix
  145. Globular proteins that act as biological catalysts.
    Enzymes
  146. Substances that regulate and accelerate the rate of bichemical reactions but are not used up or changed in those reactions.
    Catalysts
  147. Consists of a nitrogen-containing base, a pentese sugar, and a phosphate group.
    Nucleotide
  148. A=
    G=
    C=
    T=
    U=
    • Adenine
    • Guanine
    • Cytosine
    • Thymine
    • Uracil
  149. A -> T
    DNA
  150. G -> C
    DNA
  151. U replaces T
    single-strand; no bond
    RNA
  152. In nucleus
    Genetic material
    Directs protein synthesis
    Replicates itself before cell division
    Double-strand coiled into a double helix
    DNA
  153. Cytoplasm (outside nucleus)
    Carries out the genetic instructions for protein synthesis
    Single-stranded
    Straight or folded
    RNA
  154. Most important high energy compound
    ATP
  155. ATP stands for
    Adenosine Triphosphate
  156. 36 ATP are produced from each molecule of glucose during ___
    Aerobic Respiration
  157. 1.) Two additional phosphate groups are added during breakdown of food fuels
    2.) Terminal phosphate group is cleaved off, energy is released, forming ___
    3.) When a terminal phosphate group is cleaved off of that, ___ is formed as a similar amount of energy is released
    • ATP
    • ADP
    • AMP

What would you like to do?

Home > Flashcards > Print Preview