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believed recovery occurs in stages from no volitional movement to isolated/coordinated joint movements. Pts are taught to rely on their LMN centers to reproduce relatively automatic movements.
Bobath / Neurodevelopmental Treatment (NDT)
belief in the inhibition of abnormal reflex patterns of spasticity. In addition, it is important to gain postural control through dynamic changes in position
Carr-Shephard / Motor Re-Learning Program (MRP)
emphasize the practice of a specific motor task by determining which portion of the task is missing, practicing the missing portion, increasing control over the entire task and developing the ability to transfer the skill to another skill of a similar nature
using a set of processes to practice a skill and use that experience to learn skilled movements patterns
use of stability and mobility to teach specific movement patterns of skilled movement
Proprioceptive Neuromuscular Facilitation (PNF)
use of stronger body parts to stimulate and strengthen weaker parts; movement patterns are repetitive in a diagonal/spiral motion with components of flexion and extension
one of the "mothers" of sensory integration and stimulation; believed in facilitation and inhibition of responses using the sensory system; believes that the use of icing, brushing, pressure, slow/quick muscle stretches, joint retraction/approximation on can facilitate, inhibit and activate appropriate motor responses
one of the "mothers" of sensory integration and stimulation; believed in integration of the sensory system for normal development to occur; believes development is based on movement in space and proprioceptive skills
developed a type of treatment called constraint-induced movement therapy (CIMT); restraining the uninvolved side, the involved side would begin functioning
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