Cultural Anthro Exam 1

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Cultural Anthro Exam 1
2011-02-17 21:37:05
cultural anthro

Cultural Anthro Exam 1
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  1. What is Holistic Perspective?
    Looking at something as a whole
  2. What is Ethnology?
    Historical development, similarities and dissimilarities among cultures
  3. What is ethnography?
    The scientific description of individual cultures
  4. What is Historical Particularism?
    Going out in the field and getting data first hand
  5. What is cultural relativism?
    Cultural norms and values derive their meaning withing a specific social context
  6. What is Armchair Anthropology?
    Studying from far away, drawing conclusions using notes
  7. What is unlineal evolution?
    Savagery, Barbarism and Civilization
  8. What is diffusionism?
    The concept that people get their ideas from one cultural center
  9. What is Cultural Ecology?
    Cultural variations rely on geography
  10. What is poitical economy?
    The study of how native people have been affected by western economies and politics
  11. What is Feminist Anthropology?
    Study of women in society and using women to get different points across
  12. What is interpretive anthropology?
    What it means to be a person in a culture
  13. Who was Franz Boas?
    First anthropologist taught men and women. Made the 4 sub groups, shackles of tradition
  14. Who was James Frazer?
    Very Racist, Armchair anthropologist
  15. Who was A.R Radcliffe Brown?
    Structural functionalism collective traits maintain the stability of a society
  16. Who was Bronislaw Malinowski?
    Off the porch. Psychological functionalism. Culture traits meet the basic derived needs of a person
  17. What is participant observation?
    Going into the field
  18. What does an ethnographer do?
    Build rapport. Getting a role and overcome stereotypes.
  19. What issues does an ethnographer need to consider when working in "the field"?
    People using you. People wanting you there, culture shock. Don't harm the people you are writing about
  20. What did Charles Hockett say about language?
    It is Arbitrary, composed of discrete units, uses displacements has productivity and may contain lies.
  21. What is parralanguage and body language?
    Everything that goes with spoken language. Pitch Tone and Body Movements
  22. What is Grammar?
    All the knowledge shared by those able to speak a language
  23. What is phonology?
    The sound patterns of a language
  24. What is morphology?
    Rules of forming meanings with units of language
  25. What is syntax?
    Refers to how meaning is created through word order in a sentance or phrase
  26. What is linguistic relativity?
    The idea that all languages are equal
  27. What is linguistic nationalism?
    Trying to keep a language pure (French)
  28. What is code-switching?
    change language and dialects depending on the situation
  29. What is Sapir-Worf Hypothesis?
    LAnguage influences how we act with one another
  30. Who is Noam Chomsky?
    • Linguistic Competence-underlying grammatical knowledge of every fluent speaker
    • Linguistic performance-actual things people say
  31. Who is Dell Hymes?
    • Communicative Competence-the knowledge required to use a given language in various situations
    • Speech communities-groups of people that interact with language on a regualr basis
  32. Who was Ferdinand de Saussure?
    Led the shift from diachronic to synchronic studies of language in the early 20th century
  33. What is descriptive liguistic?
    Describing forms of a language used by a specific speech community
  34. What is Historical Linguistics?
    Describing changes in dialects and languages over time
  35. What is sociolinguistics?
    Looking at languages social functions political and economic relationships among and between members of a speech community
  36. What is ethnolinguistics?
    Analyzing the relationship between culture thought and language
  37. Socio-centric societies?
    The good of society over an individual
  38. Ego-centric societies?
    Focused on oneself rather than the collective
  39. Structure vs Agency?
    The tension between the tenents of culture and individuals ability to act within those constraints.
  40. Structural Violence?
    Use during tensions between a culture to show dominance
  41. What is psychological anthropology?
    An interdisciplinary subfield of anthropology that studies the interacion of culture and the mental process
  42. Who was Abraham Kardiner?
    • Houses create personality structure.
    • Organization technology and child rearing
    • All show a relationship between culture and personality
  43. Who is Ruth Benedict?
    Human cultures are personalities writ large
  44. Who was Cora DuBois?
    Said that certain traits occur most frequently but are not necessarily common to all members of that society
  45. Subjectivity?
    We are unique in our cultural world yet are embedded in shared ideas and symbols
  46. Emic?
    Insiders understanding
  47. Etic?
    Outsiders understanding
  48. Life World?
    Made up of the individuals experience of their own cultural world and others.