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Down Syndrome Karyotype
- 46 XX + 21 or XY
- Trisomy of #21
- A partial deletion of the short arm of chromosome 5 is responsible for the characteristic phenotype.
- Couldn't find karyotype, sorry Hannah! :(
Translocation of philadelphia chromosome
- •There is only one X chromosome
- 45 X
- •During gamete formation, the chromosomal abnormalities occur because of non-disjunction.
- Occurs in males- Extra Y Sex chromosome
- 47 XYY
- 47 XX + 18
- 47 XY + 18
- Trisomy of #18
- 47 XX +13
- 47 XY +13
- Trisomy of #13
- Change from one form to another
- •Bacteria changed from non-lethal to lethal.
- Deoxyribonucleic acid
- –Compound composed of: a sugar, deoxyribose, a phosphate group and a base.
Where the DNA is open and being copied
Enzyme that “unwinds” DNA.
Enzyme that puts the nucleotides together to make the DNA strand
•Messenger (mRNA) -
Takes “message” from DNA in nucleus to ribosomes in cytoplasm.–It is the form that is transcribed from the gene.–Form that is translated during protein synthesis–Alternate name for mRNA is “transcript”
•Ribosomal (rRNA) -
Major component of the ribosomes.–Made in the nucleolus–Four different forms used in construction of the ribosome.
•Transfer (tRNA) -
Transfers amino acids to ribosomes during protein synthesis–Unique 3-D structure
makes a complementary strand of RNA from the DNA template. Synthesis of RNA is 5’ to 3’ (just like DNA)
complementary to the codons in the mRNA–This sequence also determines which amino acid is attached to the 3’ end
- •Small ribosome subunit associates with mRNA and initiator tRNA
- •Large ribosome subunit associates with the complex
- •tRNAs enter the A site IF the anticodon is complementary to the codon in the mRNA
- •Elongation of the peptide occurs by transferring the polypeptide in the P site onto the amino acid in the A site
- •Peptide bonds form
- •The ribosome moves forward
–tRNA with no amino acid leaves the E site
–A new tRNA enters the A site
–The whole process repeats
•3 sites on large subunit
- –E site = exit site
- –P site = peptide site
- –A site = acceptor site
occurs when the stop codon is reached–A release factor releases the tRNA from the P site and the whole complex falls apart.