Neuro Block 3

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pszurnicki
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67181
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Neuro Block 3
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2011-03-07 01:34:41
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Neuro Block 3
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  1. Whats responsible for waking you up?
    Reticular activating system
  2. Reticular activating system relays where?
    Is it specific?
    • Relays to the cortex
    • It is not specific
  3. What is responsible for unconscious proprioception?
    Cerebellum
  4. What is responsible for conscious proprioception?
    C. Cortex
  5. Interoreceptors relay where?
    Brainstem
  6. Noci ceptors sense what kind of stimuli?
    Pain
  7. How do nociceptors sense pain?
    free nerve endings sense extracellular K+ which is normally low but upon injury is released from ICF to ECF
  8. What type of somatosensory relay is found above T6?
    • Fasciculus Cuneatus
    • Fasciculus Gracilis
  9. What type of somatosensory relay system is found up to T6?
    Fasciculus gracilis
  10. What kind of somatosensory relay is found in the dorsal column?
    Epicritic Relay
  11. What makes up the internal Arcuate Fibers?
    Axons of gracile and cuneate nuclei
  12. The internal arcuate fibers turn into what as they ascend?
    Medial Leminiscal Relay
  13. The Epicritic relay fibers desiccate where?
    At medulla level
  14. Epicritic stimuli are what?
    • vibration
    • proprioception
  15. What are protopathic stimuli?
    • diffuse touch
    • temp- cold and hot
    • pain--slow and fast
  16. Medial leminiscal relay synapses onto what nuclei?
    Nucleus ventralis lateralis of thalamus (VPL)
  17. VPL synapses onto what?
    somatosensory area 3--1--2
  18. In the spino cerebellar relay, Ia fibers carry what type of stimuli?
    Unconscious proprioception
  19. Ia fibers use what ? to reach external cuneate nuclei?
    Fasciculus Cuneatus
  20. What mediates unconscious proprioception?
    cerebellum
  21. Nt for C fiber(slow pain)
    substance P
  22. Anterolateral/spinal leminiscus relay is what type of relay?
    Protopathic
  23. What type of tract descends 2-3 segments?
    Protopathic
  24. Which relay has nucleus proprius?
    Protopathic relay
  25. Which relay crosses over on the anterior white commissure?
    • Protopathic
    • note...flexor crossed extensor also crosses it
  26. Which relay has spino thalamic and spinoreticular formations?
    Protopathic
  27. Where do epicritic cross over?
    Protopathics?
    • Medulla
    • Spinal Cord
  28. Band of bilateral protopathic loss occurs in relation to the lesion?
    at the lesion
  29. Slow pain uses what fibers?
    C fibers
  30. Are C fibers myelinated, non myelinated, unmyelinated?
    unmyelinated
  31. What neurotrasmitter is used for slow pain?
    substance P
  32. Substantia gelatinosa is an interneuron found in what pathway?
    Slow Pain
  33. Slow pain fibers (via reticular formation) synapseonto what in the thalamus?
    • Cingulate gyrus
    • prefrontal cortex
  34. The jaw Drop reflex of CN V is called what?
    Jaw-drop reflex
  35. Medial leminiscus contains what kind of sensory fibers?
    Epicritics
  36. Spinal leminiscus contains what kind of fibers?
    Protopathics
  37. A lateral medullary lesion would produce what type of sensory loss?
    • Ipsilateral protopathic to face
    • Contralateral protopathic to the face
  38. What is phototopic vision?
    • color vision
    • requires high light
  39. What is scototopic vision?
    • black and white vision
    • low lite
  40. What on the retina provides for high acuity vision?
    Fovea (Macula)
  41. What physiological change do photoreceptors undergo in response to light?
    They hyperpolarize
  42. What is special about the jaw drop reflex?
    it comes in to CN V and Leaves from it
  43. By what mechanism do photoreceptors hyperpolarize?
    • phosphodiesterase degrades cGMP
    • Sodium permeability decreases
  44. What parasympathetic nucleus mediates meiosis of the pupil?
    Edinger-Westhall Nucleus
  45. A lesion where would produce dilated pupils?
    Mesencephalon (MidBrain)
  46. Light from what nucleus goes to Edinger-Westhall Nucleus?
    Pretectum
  47. What is the pupillary light deficit?
    • Marcus Gunn Pupil...
    • pupils do not constrict bilaterally when light is shone into one pupil
    • But they both constrict when light is shone into the other pupil
  48. What would happen in a pupillary afferent deficit?
    One pupil constrict but the other doesnt
  49. What are the 3 events that occur during accomodation?
    • 1. Pupils contract
    • 2. Eyes adduct
    • 3. Lens go from flat to spherical
  50. In Agryll-Robertson pupil what is lesioned?
    • pretectum
    • pupil accomodates but does not react
  51. The bony labirynth contains what fluid similar in composition to what other physiological fluid?
    ECF--high Na, low K
  52. Membraneous Labirynth contains fluid similar in composition to what other physiological fluid?
    ICF--high K and Low Na
  53. Why are sounds perceived to be louder in Bell Palsy?
    CN VII is affected which controls stapedius which in turn controls stapes
  54. Scala media contains what type of lymph?
    endolymph high in K and low in Na
  55. The basilar membrane is thickest where?
    Apex
  56. The basilar membrane is thinnest where?
    Base
  57. The basilar membrane near the apex or the base is best suited to hear high frequency sounds?
    Base
  58. The basilar membrane near apex or base is best suited to hear low frequency sounds?
    Apex
  59. Hair cells are found in?
    Organ of corti
  60. Hair cell, supporting cells and tectorial membrane are found where?
    Organ of Corti
  61. Organ of corti sits on top of what?
    Basilar Membrane
  62. How many are there of inner hair cells in the organ of cort?
    1
  63. How many of outer hair cells are there in the organ of corti?
    3-5
  64. How does the Superior Olivary Nucleus allow for localization of sound?
    Because the ventral nucleus from the side from which sound is heard first synapses onto that side's Superior Olivary nucleus and then onto the contralateral superior olivary nucleus
  65. What is the purpose for bilateral input onto the superior olivary nucleus?
    for localization of sound
  66. The dorsal cochlear n. fibers cross over where?
    below the 4th ventricle in the middle medulla
  67. Is the relay for dorsal cochlear n ipsilateral or contralateral?
    contralateral
  68. Superior Brachium is found where?
    its a branch of the optic tract
  69. Inferior Brachium is found where?
    part of the auditory path
  70. Up to what point can hearing loss be ipsilateral?
    Up to the cochlear nucleus
  71. Why can Ipsilateral hearing loos be only caused in a region up to the cochlear nucleus?
    Because after the cochlear nucleus it is bilateral
  72. What puts tension on the tectorial membrane?
    Outer hair cells via corticofugal control
  73. The reticular activating system wakes up the cortex by synapsing onto what nuclei?
    Inferior Colliculus
  74. Where is the vision association center located in the brain?
    Parieto temporal lobe
  75. Superior brachium and superior colliculus are found in where?
    Vision
  76. Inferior brachium and inferior colliculus are found where?
    hearing
  77. Superior brachium and Superior colliculus project onto the parietal temporal association center via what nucleus?
    Palvinar nucleus of thalamus
  78. Medial geniculate nucleus is found where?
    Hearing
  79. Lateral geniculate nucleus is found where?
    Vision
  80. Lesion of the cervical cord that produces horners syndrome affects which structure?
    Descending hypothalamic tract
  81. Lesion of the thoracic cord that produces horners syndrome affects what structure?
    Antero-medial column
  82. What does enkaphalin do?
    • block C fiber presynaptically
    • via 5 HT
    • no substance P released
  83. Why arent epicritics lost in a lateral medullary lesion?
    • because they run more medially so only ipsi protos to face are lost
    • contra protos to the body
  84. Lehrmet's sign is characteristic for what?
    cervical cord sign
  85. CVA to area 8 on the left would produce what ?
    eyes deviate ipsilaterally to the left
  86. Saccadic eye movements use what area?
    area 8
  87. Smooth pursuit uses what area?
    17,18,19
  88. What is the difference between vestibulo oculomotor reflex and Optokinetic Reflex?
    • vestibulo oculomotor--in @ 8
    • out on 3 and 6
    • Optokinetic is in on 2
    • out on 3 and 6
  89. What nucleus is responsible for localization of sound?
    Superior olivary nucleus
  90. What is the differential between an Acoustic Shwanoma and Menier's disease/
    • Menier's---CN VIII only
    • Shwannoma--CN VIII, V and VII
  91. Basket and stellate cells are inhibitory or excitatory?
    inhibitory
  92. Climbing fibers are for new motor behavior or learned motor behavior?
    new motor behavior
  93. What is the only excitatory cell in the cerebellum?
    Granular cell

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