DNA and Protein Synthesis
Card Set Information
DNA and Protein Synthesis
Whats the difference between a purine and pyrimidine?
purine- G and A, 2 rings
pyrimidine- C and T, 1 ring
Who is responsible for determining the structure of the DNA molecule and in what year?
Watson and Crick, 1953
How did Rosalind Franklin contribute to determining the structure of DNA?
she formed the X-ray diffraction model
What kind of bonds hold the complementary DNA bases together?
weak hydrogen bonds
What is the most common nucleic acid found in organisms?
Define DNA replication
the process that copies 1 DNA strand into 2 equal strands
What is a replication fork?
the initiation point where helicase begins splitting the DNA
How many amino acids are there?
How many codon combinations are there?
Name the three types of RNA and tell the shape of each.
Which type of RNA copies DNA's instructions in the nucleus?
What makes up ribosomes?
large and small ribosomal units
What are the three STOP codons?
What does tRNA transport?
What are transcripts?
What kind of bonds do amino acids use when bonding with one another?
What codon/amino acid begins protein synthesis?
In what two places in the cell can ribosomes be found?
cytoplasm and rough ER
What happens to the newly formed mRNA after transcription?
it exits the nucleus and binds to the ribosome where translation occurs
Which RNA molecules are involved in protein synthesis?
All (rRNA, tRNA, mRNA)
Where is the anticodon found on tRNA?
the second loop
Does DNA replication begin at one end and proceed to the other?
No, starts from many different points
Where does RNA polymerase bind to the DNA it is transcribing?
the promoter region
What is RNA polymerase?
attaches to DNA, unwinds DNA, builds up an RNA molecule
What is a mutation?
any change in an organism's genetic code
Name several things that can cause DNA mutations.
mutagenic chemicals, radiation
What is a codon and what does each codon code for?
3 nucleotides, amino acids
What organelle synthesizes proteins?
What are three binding sites on the ribosomes?
E site- exit
The start codon AUG pairs with what anticodon?
Can more than one ribosome at a time translate an mRNA transcript?
What determines the primary structure of a protein
amino acid sequence
What is DNA's primary function?
to store and transmit genetic info
What are the repeating subunits called that make up DNA?
Name the three parts of a DNA nucleotide
bases (A, T, C, G)
How are the two strands of DNA positioned in relation to one another?
antiparallel with complementary bases
What makes up the sides of a DNA molecule?
phosphate and sugar
What makes up the "steps" of a DNA molecule?
What makes up the "backbone" of the DNA molecule?
phosphodiester bonds, sugar and phosphate
How many base pairs are in a full turn or twist of a DNA molecule?
How many hydrogen bonds link C and G?
How many hydrogen bonds link A and T?
What is the first step that must occur in DNA replication?
unzipping, or separating of the strands using helicase
What is the function of DNA polymerase III?
adds new complementary nucleotides to each strand
What acts as a template in DNA replication?
the sequence of base pairs on each separated strand
What is the function of DNA polymerase I?
changes the RNA nucleotides from primase between the Okazaki fragments into DNA nucleotides
What is the function of ligase?
connects Okazaki fragments