appearance: generally round cell, slightly larger than RBC, round nucleus, very little cytoplasm
cells of lymphatic system, providing defense against specific pathogens or toxins
survives from months to decades, circulate from blood to tissues and back
produced from bone marrow AND lymphoid
what stem cells give rise to WBCs?
myeloid stem cells: give rise to basophils, eosinophils, neutrophils and monocytes
lymphoid stem cells: give rise to lymphocytes
regulation by stimulating cofactors (CSFs)
CSFs stimulate production of specific types of WBCs
M-CSF: stimulates production of Monocytes
G-CSF: stimulates production of Granulocytes
GM-CSF: stimulates production of both Granulocytes and Monocytes
Multi-CSF: accelerates the production of granulocytes, monocytes, platelets and RBCs
genetically engineered form of G-CSF
given to chemotherapy patients to stimulate production of neutrophils (=granulocyte)
NEU-pogen to make NEU-trophils!!! =)
WBC production pathway:
hemocytoblasts --> myeloid stem cells --> progenitor cells --> blast cells (myeloblast which makes B-E-N and monoblast which makes monocyte) --> myelocytes --> band cells --> WBCs
notice where the CSFs are stimulating!!!
G-CSF - stilumates myeloblast (blast cell)
M-CSF - stimulates monoblast (blast cell)
GM-CSF - stimulates progenitor cells (becomes myeloblast or monoblast)
Mutli-CSF - stimulates myeloid stem cells (because it makes everything besides lymphocytes so NOT lymphoid stem cells)
difference between leukopenia, leukocytosis and leukemia?
leukopenia: decrease in # of WBCs
leukocytosis: increase in # of WBCs, normal during an infection
leukemia: EXTREME leukocytosis, abnormal non functioning WBCs
difference between myeloid leukemia and lympoid leukemia?
myeloid: cancer of the cells of the bone marrow
lymphod: cancer of the lymphocytes
difference between acute leukemia and chronic leukemia?
acute: short & severe; formation of non-functional cells and blast cells; multiplying of these cells crowd out other bone marrow cells and results in anemia and thrombocytopenia (low platelets)... linked to radiation exposure, hereditary susceptibility, viral infections, or unknown causes
chronic: prolonged; few to no blast cells; increase in number of WBCs can cause a decrease in blood flow and anemia; excess lymphocytes can crowd out regular lymphoicytes and weaken the immune system... related to acquired chromosomal abnormalities in cancerous cells or immune system malfunctions
what are the 4 main types of leukemia?
ALL, CLL, AML and CML
first letter = acute or chronic
2nd letter = myeloid or lymphoid
last = leukemia
acute lymphoid leukemia (ALL) vs acute myeloid leukemia (AML)
most common in children (under 15)
when detected early 85-90% of patients held in remission for 5 years or longer
only 10-15% survive 5 yrs or longer
hormones of the immune system: cytokines
act as autocrine and paracrine factors and as hormones
can stimulate cells to proliferate, differentiate (turn into another cell type), activate (become pro inflammatory), deactivate (anti-inflammatory), die (apoptosis)
just a reminder:
autocrine: a cell secretes something that affects itself
paracrine: a cell secretes something that affects adjacent cells
hormones of the immune system: interleukins (a type of cytokine)
produced primarily by lymphocytes and macrophages (IL-1 is also produced by endothelial cells, fibroblasts and astrocytes)
increase T cell sensitivity to antigens exposed on macrophage surfaces (leads to increase production of T cells)
enhances non specific defenses: stimulation of inflammation, formation of scar tissue by fibroblast, increase body temp, increase mast cell formation (mast cell involved in immune response, tissue repair and angiogenesis), promotion of ACTH secretion, moderating the immune response
stimulates B cell activity, plasma cell formation and antibody production
which interluekin plays a role in prostaglandin synthesis... and using a drug to block this can be used in treatment for rheumatoid arthritis?
which interleukin stimulates growth and activation of T cells & NK cells.. can be used as cancer drug to boost the immune system?
which interleukin can be used to treat chemotherapy-induced thrombocytopenia?
IL-11: oprelvekin (Neumega)
hormones of the immune system: interferons
-how are they used to treat cancers?
function: involved in slowing the spread of a virus... another cytokine
cancer: bec they stimulate NK cell activity... can be used to treat cancer
ex. alpha-interferons used to treat malignant malinoma, bladder cancer, ovarian cancer, two types of leukemia... beta-interferons used to treat multiple sclerosis... etc
what are the 3 types of interferons?
alpha: attract and stimulate NK cells
beta: slow the progression of inflammation associated with viral infections
gamma: attract and stimulate NK cells, stimulate macrophages (makes them more efficient at killing bacterial or fungal pathogens)
hormones of the immune system: tumor necrosis factors (TNFs)
slow growth of tumor and kill sensitive tumor cells
produced by activated macrophages and cytotoxic t cells
also stimulates granular leukocyte production, increase eosinophil activity, causes fever, increase T cell sensitivity to interleukins
hormones of the immune system: colony stimulating factors (CSFs)
remember... G-CSF, M-CSF, GM-CSF and multi-CSF
produced by active T cells, monocyte/macrophages, endothelial cells and fibroblasts
stimulates production of blood cells in bone marrow
stimulates production of lymphocytes in lyphoid tissues and organs