inflammatory process

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Author:
Naheer
ID:
67365
Filename:
inflammatory process
Updated:
2011-02-25 14:10:59
Tags:
injury prevention care
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Description:
midterm review
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  1. 4 stages to tissue response
    • 1. cellular injury
    • 2. altered metabolism
    • 3. chemical reaction
    • 4. inflammatory response
  2. Healing response-continuum
    • inflammatory response (0-4d)
    • repair and regeneration (2-52d)
    • maturation-remodeling (21-2yr)
  3. inflammatory response phase includes:
    • 1.vascular response
    • 2.chemical cellular response
    • 3.hemostatic response
    • 4.immune response
  4. 1.Vascular response
    • changes in blood flow
    • increased capillary permeability
  5. 2.Chemical response
    • sets stage for repair
    • 3 important mediators
    • histamine-vasodilation, increase cell permeability
    • leukotrienes-vasodilation
    • cytokines-regulate leukocytes
  6. 3.Hemostatic Response
    • blood vessels retract and seal off
    • venous and lymphatic drainage blocked
  7. 2. cellular response
    • platlets and leukocytes move from centre vessel to wall
    • chemotaxis--injury site (6hrs)
  8. clot formation begins ____ hrs and ends _____hrs
    12, 48
  9. whats the process from and injury to clot formation
    injury---cmeical mediator released---vascular reaction--platlets and leukocytes stick to vascular wall--phagocytosis--clot formation
  10. 4.Immune response
    • bacteria damage infections
    • removal of toxins
  11. fibroblastic repair stage (scar formation)
    • temporary repair
    • wound contraction
    • revascularization
  12. damaged tissue replaced by cells of same type_____
    regeneration
  13. original tissue is replaced by scar tissue______
    repair
  14. repair phase
    • regeneration of capillary buds
    • formation granulation tissue
    • formulation extracellular matrix
    • tensile strength of scar increases, # of fibroblasts decreases=beginning of maturation phase
  15. maturation-remodeling phase
    • long term
    • balance between breaking down and growing
    • remodeling of collagen fibres
  16. healing by first intention, closely opposed edges--> ↓granulation tissue is ______
    primary healing
  17. healing by secondary intention, gaping wound--> ↑granulation tissue, ↑scar
    secondary healing
  18. what are six factors that affect healing?
    • 1. extent of injury
    • 2. poor vascular supply
    • 3. medication
    • 4.infection
    • 5. humidity
    • 6. health, age and nutrition
  19. which tissue type has limited healing capacity
    cartialge
  20. which tissue type can scar and regnerate?
    liament
  21. what is the healing property of epithelium tissue?
    great potential to regenerate
  22. what is the healing property of msucle?
    optimal regeneration dependent on multiple factors
  23. what type if tissue requires right amount of collagen to heal
    tendon
  24. chronic inflammation
    • low concentration chemical mediators
    • production granulation tissue and fibrous connective tissue
  25. what are three dimensions of pain perception and explain
    • sensory-check source of pain
    • cognitive-relate to past experiences
    • affective-fear, anxiety, crying
  26. explain how pain response works
    injury-->activation PNS-->actication CNS-->send pain signal to brain-->PAIN
  27. what are diferent types of pain receptors?
    • A-delta
    • C fibres
  28. A-delta
    • lightly myelinated, afferent
    • activated by high pressure or temp
    • fast
  29. C fibres
    • unmyelinated afferent
    • not as intense
    • slower onset
  30. Acute pain
    • A-delta fibre activation
    • intense sharp burning pain
  31. chronic inflammation
    • C fibre stimulation
    • dull throbbing pain
    • pain thay still occurs long after healing process completed
  32. referred pain
    • visceral, deep mm
    • due to embryo migration before birth
  33. Gate theory
    • modulated by spinal cord
    • stimulation of A-Beta reaches spinal cord-->causing "closing of gate"
    • tricks brain into not feeling pain because cannot be interpreted by cortex
  34. describe descending pain control
    • transmit impulses from cortex to spinal cord
    • release of neurotransmitters blocks and inhibit ascending neurons
  35. B-Endorpin theory
    • modulated by cerebral cortex or higher centers
    • descending pain relief
    • endorphins released by hypothalmus into blood or CSF

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