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occurs when two or more people clash over an issue and have different beliefs/values.
Causes of Conflict
- 1. Different Goals-clash expectations
- 2.Methods of Reaching Goals-agree on goal but differe on how to achieve the goal
- 3. Scarcity of Resources-comp of limited Resources
- 4. Relationship Differences-
- 5. Unequal Power Distribution-
- -Positional Power- refers to authority to the someone who is able to decide
- -Reward or punishment power- someone who has the ability to offer rewards
- -Info power- communicators ability to present meaningful info
- -Persuasive Power-ability to persuade others.
- 6.Unclear Role Expectations
- 7. Lack of info-people lack the info needed to makes a good decision or understand why something happened.
- 8. Different Values- moral conflict
- 9. Face- Saving-someone who has experienced real or imagined shame or embarrassment
Types of Conflict
- 1.Disagreement- mild conflict involves issues that are not necessarily related to the relationship
- 2. Misplaced Conflicts-one or both parties fail to recognize the real issue and instead engage someone or something else.
- -False conflict- one person thinks there is a conflict but not really
- -. Displaced Conflict- one person wrongfully attributes a problem or issue to another person
- -.Substitution Conflict- people argue about an issue but its not the one at the center of the problem.
- 2.Nonsubstantive Conflicts-complaining, whining
- 3. Substantive conflicts- involve real issues and thus real substance.
- 4. Organization conflict- occurs when policiees , decisions, or directional shifts create resistance between individuals who feel others are blocking their efforts or those of their group.
3 levels of conflict
- 1.Problem identification-identify a problem and move toward a solution
- 2. Advocacy- from consensus building to debating and providing proof.
- 3. Winning- pursued at all cost.
4 Theories of Conflict
- 1.Phase Theory-predictable pattern.
- 2. Conflict Avoidance Cylce theory-the longer we avoid it , the worse it gets.
- 3.Chilling Effect Theory-death of the relationship.
- 4. Escalation Theory- leads us to the illusion that the conflict will go away.
5 Regions of Conflict Communication Styles
- 1. Competition- when a quick decision is needed/
- 2. Collaboration style- committment from all parties
- 3. Compromise- when accomplishing goal is not as important as maknig relationships.
- 4. Accommodation style- perserving harmony is better than the goal
- 5. Avodance Style- people need to cool down.
- 1. The setting is appropiate
- 2.Get to the point
- 3. Make sure the requested change is something the person can comply.
- 4.Reasonable outcomes
- 1. Ask for an example of the behavior in a question.
- 2. Listen and paraphase
- 3. Admit when wrong
- 4. Ask for improvement.
Principles to maintain emotional Control during conflict
- 1.Accept conflict is normal
- 2.Listen actively, repeat back
- 3. Ask for more info when needed
- 4. Show that understand
- 5. Ask for suggestions.
moving two parties from opposite positions to a common position over some resource that is desired by both.
- 1. People-sepearate the people from issue
- 2.Interests- focus on you and opponents interests
- 3. Options- Come to negotiate options.
- 4. Criteria- standards that both parties accept.
- 1. Issue-
- 2.Positions- state position
- 3. Interests-
- 4.Common Ground-
Alternative Dispute Resolutions
- 1. Open door policy- welcoming suggestions
- 2. Peer review- Complaints heard by supervisors
- 3. Ombudsman- indpendent office resolving probelms.
- 4.Union management model-both parties short term advantages to obtain long term stability and thus less loss
- 5. Employer -run dispute resolution procedure-follow procedures before taking the dispute to courts.
- 6. Mediation- netural party
- 7.Mediation/Arbitration-third party to help
- 8.Fact finding-third party hears both sides, and makes a decision.
- 1.Intuitive Style-creativity
- 2. Normative-everything can be bargained for
- 3.Analytical Style- logic leads to conclusion