Anatomy Chapter 17

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Anatomy Chapter 17
2011-04-11 22:50:21
Human Anatomy

Muscles, Part 1
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  1. Because of the tissue composition of an individual skeletal muscle, what level of organization is a muscle such as the biceps brachii or pectoralis major classified within?
  2. What is the study of muscle?
  3. In some situations, as when you lay an object on a table, a muscle is actually gettin glonger while doing what you want. One of the characteristics of muscle is contractility. Yet a muscle allowing you to extend your elbow in a controlled fashion is not getting shorter. What is it doing?
    producing force
  4. What is another term for skeletal muscle cell?
    muscle fibers
  5. What is an expansive sheet of dense irregular connective tissue that separates individual muscles, binds together muscles with similar functions, forms sheaths to help distribute nerves, blood vessels, and to fill spaces between muscles?
    deep fascia
  6. What layer of tissue is composed of areolar connective tissue and adipose tissue that separates muscle from skin?
    superficial fascia
  7. What are cordlike structures that attach muscle to bone, skin, or other structures?
  8. What are sheet os tissue that connect muscle to bone, skin, or other structures?
  9. Most skeletal muscles cross one or more joints to bring about movements in those joints. Which attach of a muscle usually remains stationary when a muscle contracts?
  10. Most skeletal muscles cross one or more joints to bring about movements in those joints. Which attach of muscle usually moves when a muscle contracts?
  11. What is the enlarged fleshy portion of a muscle made up of muscle fibers?
  12. What is a muscle producing a particular movement called?
  13. What is a muscle whose actions oppose those of the prime mover?
  14. What is a muscle that assists the prime mover in its action?
  15. Define axial muscles.
    origins and insertions are on parts of the axial skeleton
  16. Identifying the sphincter muscle originating medially on the bones of the orbit and inserting on the tissue of the eyelids. It permts blinking, winking and squinting.
    obicularis oculi
  17. Identify the muscle located in the ocular region, but not attached to the eyeball. Arises from the under surface of the small wing of the sphenoid. Inserts on the eyelid and acts to raise it.
    levatar palpebrae superioris
  18. Identify the complicated multilayered muscle with most of its fibers running circularly from the facial node. Its fibers insert in skin, mucosa of the lips, and muscles around the orifice of the oral cavity. It closes the lips and aids in pursing the lips as in kissing.
    obicularis oris
  19. What is the thin, superficial, sheet-like muscle originating on the fascia of the pectoralis major and deltoid muscles and inserting on the lower border of the mandible and the corners of the mouth? It draws the corners of the mouth downward and may assist in opening the mouth.
  20. Origin - Temporal fossa and deep surface of temporal fascia
    Insertion -
    Lateral surface of the ramus of the mandible
    Action -
    Elevates and protracts mandible
  21. Origin - Deep Head: medial surface of lateral pterygoid plate and pyramidal process of palatine bone. Superficial Head: tuberosity of maxilla
    Insertion - Medial ramus of mandible
    Action - Elevates and protracts mandible; moves mandible medially
    medial pterygoid muscle
  22. Origin - Superior Head: Infratemporal surface and infratemporal crest of greater wing of sphenoid bone. Inferior Head: Lateral surface of lateral pterygoid plate
    Insertion - Superior Head: Articular disc and capsule of\emporomandibular joint. Inferior Head: Anterior side of mandibular condyloid process
    Action - protracts mandible
    lateral pterygoid muscle
  23. In regard to muscles, what are those whose origin and insertion are both within structure under consideration?
    intrinsic muscles
  24. In regard to muscles, what are those who have their origin outside of the structure under consideration?
    extrinsic muscles
  25. Origin - Anterior Belly: Digastric fossa of the mandible. Posterior Belly: Mastoid groove or notch of the temporal bone.
    Insertion - Hyoid bone
    Action - Depresses mandible; elevates hyoid
    digarstric muscle
  26. Origin - Sternal Head: Ventral surface of the manubrium. Clavicular Head: Cranial surface of medial third of clavicle.
    Insertion - Lateral surface of mastoid process and superior nuchal line of occiptal bone.
    Action - Turns head to side; flexes neck and head
  27. Origin - Transverse processes of cervical vertebrae
    Insertion - First and second ribs
    Action - Flexes neck laterally; eleveates rib cage
  28. Identify: a massive extensor consisting of three groups that are found from the sacrum to the skull and work to extend the spine or, if only one side contracts, to bring about lateral flexion.
    erector spinae
  29. Origin - Iliac crest and iliolumbar ligament
    Insertion - Transverse processes of the lumbar vertebrae and the twelth rib
    Action - Contraction of one side flexes the vertebral colum laterally; contraction of both sides extends the vertebral column
    quadratus lumborum
  30. Origin - Inferior border of a rub from costal tubercle to end of rib at articulation with costal cartilage
    Insertion - Superior border of rib just inferior to rib of origin
    Action - Elevates ribs during inspiration as needed
    external intercostal
  31. Origin - Superior border of a rub from costal angle to sternum
    Insertion - Inferior border of rib just superior to rib of origin
    Action - Intercondral portion elevates and draws ribs together during inspiration as needed; interosseous portion depresses and draws ribs together during expieration as needed
    internal intercostal
  32. Origin - Xiphoid process, costal cartilages of last six ribs and lumbar vertebrae
    Insertion - Central tendon
    Action - pulls central tendon inferiorly
  33. Origin - External surfaces of 5th to 12th ribs
    Insertion - Anterior half of iliac crest, pubic tubercle, and linea alba
    Action - Compresses and supports abdominal viscera; flexes and rotates trunk
    external abdominal obliques
  34. Origin - Anterior 2/3 of iliac crest, lateral half of inguinal ligament, and thoracolumbar fascia
    Insertion - Linea alba, costal cartilage of last three or four ribs.
    Action - Compresses and supports abdominal viscera; flexes and rotates trunk
    internal abdominal obliques
  35. Origin - Iliac crest, inguinal ligament, lumbar fascia, and costal cartilage of last six ribs
    Insertion - Xiphoid process, linea alba, and pubis
    Action - Compresses and supports abdominal viscera
    transversus abdominis
  36. Origin - Pubic crest and symphysis pubis
    Insertion - Costal cartilages of fifth through seventh ribs and xiphoid process
    Action - Flexes vertebral column; compresses and supports abdominal viscera
    rectus abdominis
  37. How might the sternocleidomastoid aid in respiration?
    lifts the rib cage
  38. What msucle closes the eye?
    orbicularis oculi
  39. What muscle forms the bulge on eitehr side of the median furrow?
    erector spinae