physiology winter final.txt

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physiology winter final.txt
2011-02-21 19:24:41
physiology winter final

physiology winter final
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  1. Do saliva glands utilize hormones and nerves to activate?
    No, they do not use hormones. Just PNS and SNS.
  2. What chemicals cause constriction of GI tract?
    ACH, Substance P, Enkephalins
  3. What chemicals cause relaxation of GI tract (PNS)?
    VIP, Neuropeptide Y, NE
  4. What two types of gastrin are released and when?
    • G17: during meals
    • G34: between meals
  5. What cells released Gastrin?
    G cells in Antrum
  6. What cells secrete Somatostatin?
    D cells in Antrum
  7. What does somatostatin inhibit?
    Gastrin, HCl, Histamine
  8. What cells release histamine?
    ECL (enterochromaffin like cells) in Oxyntic Body
  9. What are three chemical agonists of parietal cells?
    histamine, Ach, Gastrin
  10. What are three antagonists of parietal cells?
    • Somatostatin (d cells)
    • Prostaglandins
    • Growth factors
  11. What are the three phases of gastric secretion and their percentages?
    • Cephalic (30%)
    • Gastric (60%)
    • Intestinal (10%)
  12. Why doesn't the stomach autodigest itself?
    • 1) impermeable membrane
    • 2) tight junctions b/t cells
    • 3) gastric mucosal barrier
  13. What molecule activates when fat is in the duodenum and from what cells?
    • CCK
    • I-cells
  14. What are the three pancreatic endocrine cells and their secretions?
    • Beta cells: Insulin
    • Alpha cells: Glucagon
    • Delta cells: Somatostatin
  15. What ANS system stimulates pancreatic release?
    PNS (vagus)
  16. What three pancreatic enzymes are secreted from Acinar cells?
    • 1) Protease: trypsinogen, chymotrypsinogen, procarboxypeptidase
    • 2) Alpha amylase: polysaccharides into disaccharides
    • 3) Lipase: TG into mono and 2 FA
  17. What do pancreatic enzymes focus on degrading: fats, proteins or carbs?
  18. What molecule activates trypsin?
  19. Are salivary secretions isotonic or hypotonic?
    Hypotonic (Start isotonic from acinar cell release)
  20. Are pancreatic secretions isotonic or hypotonic?
    Isotonic (start isotonic as well from acinar cells)
  21. What chemical do S cells release?
  22. What is the function of secretin?
    Stimulate release of Bicarb
  23. What phase of digestion activates pancreatic exocrine chemical release?
  24. What pathways do CCK and Secretin utilize?
    • CCK: PLC>IP3>Calcium release>Acinar cells>enzyme release
    • Secretin: cAMP>ductal cells>release Bicarb
  25. What two molecules are necessary for bile salt digestion?
    Pancreatic lipase + CoLipase
  26. T/F bilirubin is not involved in digestion?
  27. What are two choloretics?
    • Vagus Nerve (PNS)
    • Secretin (from S cells)
  28. What sphinctor must be opened to release bile into intestine?
    Sphinctor of Oddi
  29. What is the main method of mixing in the small intestine?
  30. What is the rate of segmentation in the duodenum and ileum?
    • Duodenum: 12/min
    • Ileum: 9/min (gastroileal reflex)
  31. What are the names of the waves in front and behind a peristaltic wave?
    • Front: Caudad, relax = VIP, NO, NE, Neuropeptide Y
    • Behind: Orad, constrics = Ach, Substance P, Enkephalins
  32. What do glucose and galactose require on the apical membrane to enter the SI?
    Na+ pump
  33. How do Glucose, galactose and fructose pass through the basolateral membrane?
    facilitated diffusion
  34. How does fructose pass through both the apical and basolateral membrane?
    Facilitated diffusion
  35. What GLUT transporters are used for Glucose and galactose on the basolateral SI membrane?
    GLUT 2
  36. What GLUT transporter is used on the apical and basolateral membrane for Fructose?
    GLUT 5
  37. What are the three endopeptidases and their function?
    • Pepsin, Trypsin, chymotrypsin
    • cleave peptide bonds
  38. What is the one exopeptidase and its function?
    • Carboxypeptidase
    • **cleave AA from ends
  39. What type of transporter do AA use on the apical membrane of SI?
    Na dependent
  40. How do AA pass the Basolateral membrane?
    facilitated diffusion
  41. What two amylases can digest polysaccharides?
    • Salivary Amylase
    • Pancreatic Amylase
  42. T/F villi are present on the LI
  43. What does the LI extract?
    H2O and salt
  44. What type of contractions does the LI utilize?
  45. How often does a Haustral contraction occur and where?
    • every 30 min
    • LI
  46. How often does a mass movement occur and where?
    • 1-3/day
    • LI
  47. Do both sphincters relax or contract during nonactivity?
  48. If flow rate is increased in the LI, what happens to K amounts?
    decrease = hypokalemia due to secretion
  49. What chemical activates Na and H2O absorption in the LI?
    Aldosterone (from RAS)
  50. What type of secretion is released from LI goblet cells?