physiology winter final.txt
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Do saliva glands utilize hormones and nerves to activate?
No, they do not use hormones. Just PNS and SNS.
What chemicals cause constriction of GI tract?
ACH, Substance P, Enkephalins
What chemicals cause relaxation of GI tract (PNS)?
VIP, Neuropeptide Y, NE
What two types of gastrin are released and when?
- G17: during meals
- G34: between meals
What cells released Gastrin?
G cells in Antrum
What cells secrete Somatostatin?
D cells in Antrum
What does somatostatin inhibit?
Gastrin, HCl, Histamine
What cells release histamine?
ECL (enterochromaffin like cells) in Oxyntic Body
What are three chemical agonists of parietal cells?
histamine, Ach, Gastrin
What are three antagonists of parietal cells?
- Somatostatin (d cells)
- Growth factors
What are the three phases of gastric secretion and their percentages?
- Cephalic (30%)
- Gastric (60%)
- Intestinal (10%)
Why doesn't the stomach autodigest itself?
- 1) impermeable membrane
- 2) tight junctions b/t cells
- 3) gastric mucosal barrier
What molecule activates when fat is in the duodenum and from what cells?
What are the three pancreatic endocrine cells and their secretions?
- Beta cells: Insulin
- Alpha cells: Glucagon
- Delta cells: Somatostatin
What ANS system stimulates pancreatic release?
What three pancreatic enzymes are secreted from Acinar cells?
- 1) Protease: trypsinogen, chymotrypsinogen, procarboxypeptidase
- 2) Alpha amylase: polysaccharides into disaccharides
- 3) Lipase: TG into mono and 2 FA
What do pancreatic enzymes focus on degrading: fats, proteins or carbs?
What molecule activates trypsin?
Are salivary secretions isotonic or hypotonic?
Hypotonic (Start isotonic from acinar cell release)
Are pancreatic secretions isotonic or hypotonic?
Isotonic (start isotonic as well from acinar cells)
What chemical do S cells release?
What is the function of secretin?
Stimulate release of Bicarb
What phase of digestion activates pancreatic exocrine chemical release?
What pathways do CCK and Secretin utilize?
- CCK: PLC>IP3>Calcium release>Acinar cells>enzyme release
- Secretin: cAMP>ductal cells>release Bicarb
What two molecules are necessary for bile salt digestion?
Pancreatic lipase + CoLipase
T/F bilirubin is not involved in digestion?
What are two choloretics?
- Vagus Nerve (PNS)
- Secretin (from S cells)
What sphinctor must be opened to release bile into intestine?
Sphinctor of Oddi
What is the main method of mixing in the small intestine?
What is the rate of segmentation in the duodenum and ileum?
- Duodenum: 12/min
- Ileum: 9/min (gastroileal reflex)
What are the names of the waves in front and behind a peristaltic wave?
- Front: Caudad, relax = VIP, NO, NE, Neuropeptide Y
- Behind: Orad, constrics = Ach, Substance P, Enkephalins
What do glucose and galactose require on the apical membrane to enter the SI?
How do Glucose, galactose and fructose pass through the basolateral membrane?
How does fructose pass through both the apical and basolateral membrane?
What GLUT transporters are used for Glucose and galactose on the basolateral SI membrane?
What GLUT transporter is used on the apical and basolateral membrane for Fructose?
What are the three endopeptidases and their function?
- Pepsin, Trypsin, chymotrypsin
- cleave peptide bonds
What is the one exopeptidase and its function?
- **cleave AA from ends
What type of transporter do AA use on the apical membrane of SI?
How do AA pass the Basolateral membrane?
What two amylases can digest polysaccharides?
- Salivary Amylase
- Pancreatic Amylase
T/F villi are present on the LI
What does the LI extract?
H2O and salt
What type of contractions does the LI utilize?
How often does a Haustral contraction occur and where?
How often does a mass movement occur and where?
Do both sphincters relax or contract during nonactivity?
If flow rate is increased in the LI, what happens to K amounts?
decrease = hypokalemia due to secretion
What chemical activates Na and H2O absorption in the LI?
Aldosterone (from RAS)
What type of secretion is released from LI goblet cells?
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