Music History Exam 1

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Music History Exam 1
2011-02-19 18:00:19
Music History Baroque

Music History 3402 Exam 1, Late Baroque
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  1. Abendmusiken
    • "Evening music"
    • Played on Sundays leading up to Christmas,
    • performed by Buxtehude
  2. Accompanied recitative
    Huge orchestral interruptions for tense scenes
  3. Bach-Gesellschaft
    society formed in 1850 for the express purpose of publishing the complete works of Johann Sebastian Bach without editorial additions.
  4. Basso continuo
    Accompaniment consisting of one bass instrument and one chordal instrument
  5. Chorale Prelude
    • form based on chorale tune
    • just playing the tune as a prelude in preparation for singing
  6. Collegium Musicum
    • Amateur music groups
    • schools had these groups that gave public concerts
    • gathered to play for their own pleasure
  7. Coloratura
    • Ornamentation found in arias
    • assoc. with Handel
  8. Orchestral Concerto
    Emphasize the first violin and bass
  9. Solo Concerto
    Solo instrument with Orchestra
  10. Concerto grosso
    Set smal ensemble against large one soloist against tutti (all)
  11. Concertino
    2 violins accompanied by cello and continuo
  12. tutti or repieno
    All, or full
  13. Conservatories
    Originally for orphans the took paying students
  14. Da capo aria
    • “from the head”
    • Ternary
    • Most common form of aria in scarlatti’s operas and cantatas
    • Creates ABA form
    • Offers great flexibility in expression
    • A) small 2 part form with 2 diff. settings of same textInstrumental ritornello separates the two sections
    • B) New key and mode to reflect change of emotion
    • Popular because it offered embellishment in repeat
  15. English oratorio
    • Handel
    • "sacred entertainment"
    • much simpler
    • combined with italian style but with new elements
    • Chorus is now more prominent
    • they actually participate now
  16. Erdmann Neumeister
    • Invented the German Cantata
    • Added poetic texts
    • combined chorale, solo, recit, and aria styles
    • sought new style of sacred cantata
  17. Exposition
    Set of entries of subject
  18. Subject
    main theme of a fugue that is repeated in all voices
  19. Answer
    • second entrance of subject begins on the dominant
    • notes are not always exactly the same
  20. Episode
    Periods of free counterpoint in between statements of the subject
  21. Stretto
    Overlapping entrances of subject
  22. Fundamental bass
    • in a progression, it is a series of the fundamental tones
    • different inversions are still the same chord
    • invented by Jean-Philippe Rameau
  23. Il preto rosso
    • The Red Priest
    • Vivaldi
    • cause of red hair
  24. L'art de toucher la clavecin
    • Couperin
    • book of harpsichord pieces
    • most imp. book for french baroque performance practice
  25. L'estro armonico
    • Harmonic Inspiration
    • Example of his attractive titles to his books to attract buyers.
    • Vivaldi
  26. ordres
    • Suites (harpsichord mostly)
    • Couperin
  27. Pio Ospedale della Pieta
    • Where Vivaldi was a teacher, composer, and conductor from 1703-1740
    • He was music master at this orphanage
    • constantly composing for this position
  28. prelude
    • What comes before everything else
    • The first movement of a work
  29. ritornello form
    • Ritornellos alternate with solos
    • opening rit. = few small 2-4 measure segments
    • later statements are partial
    • ritornello = tonal guideposts
    • solo episodes = virtuosic
  30. prima donna
    Had the most and best arias
  31. ritornello
    • Instrumental interlude
    • often serves as a tonal guidepost
  32. Royal Academy of Music
    • 1718-1719
    • Joint stock company for producing Italian operas
    • Associated with Handel (music director)
    • Operas staged at King's Theater
    • Dissolved in 1729 because of money
  33. Serenata
    • Midway between cantata and opera
    • Semi-dramatic piece for several singers and small orchestra,
    • usually written for special occasion
    • First composer of this was Alessandro Stradellla
  34. simple recitative
    • As speechlike as possible
    • With continuo only
  35. sonata da camera
    • chamber sonata
    • For use in courts of nobility
    • Series of stylized dances beginning with prelude solo and trio
  36. sonata da chiesa
    • church sonata
    • mostly abstract movements
    • dance rhythms and binary forms
    • could be used in church settings
    • serious minded use
    • in liturgical context subsitute for parts of the liturgy
    • Trio, and rare solo
  37. St. Thomas's school
    While Bach was in Leipzig, he was the music director of this school
  38. stadtpfiefers
    • Town musicians in Germany
    • Supported by cities and churches
    • They have the exclusive right to provide music during public events
    • proficient at many instruments
  39. Suite parts
    • 4 Main ones
    • allemande
    • courante
    • sarabande
    • gigue
    • --------
    • Bourree
    • Musette
    • Minuet
    • Passepied
  40. Allemande
    Germany, duple, moderate tempo, serious in mood
  41. courante
    French, running lively tempo, rapid simple triple meter
  42. Sarabande
    Triple, with emphasis on the 2nd beat, slow and solemn
  43. Gigue
    British, compound duple, dotted rhythms, fast, lively, light in mood
  44. bourree
    duple, simple meter, lively tempo, starts with up beat
  45. Musette
    dance, describes a little french bagpipe, usually has a drone, pastoral feeling, duple meter
  46. Minuet
    triple meter, stately mood
  47. Passepied
    lively dance compound meter, 3/8 or 6/8, light hearted sailor quality
  48. Thoroughbass
    • same as basso continuo
    • like figured bass
    • up to the musician to fill in the chords
  49. Traite de l'harmonie
    • Rameau
    • Treatise on Harmony in which he explained his methodology
    • most influential theoretical work every written
  50. trio sonata
    • 2 violins and basso continuo
    • 3-part texture
    • could be more than 3 players on multiple parts filling in the chords
    • follow format of sonata da chiesa
    • s f s f
  51. Turmsonaten
    • Chorales or sonatas
    • played daily on wind instruments from the tower of the town hall or church