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- complex response intended to minimize the effects of injury or infection, remove the damaged tissue, and generate new tissue.
- many diseases are knownto be linked to the inflammatory response.
- inflammatory response may also play role in other diseases.
the adaptive response that's triggered by noxious stimuli & conditions such as infection & tissue injury & is of relatively short duration, lasting from a few minutes to several days. it is characterized by the exudations of fluid and plasma proteins & emigration of leukocytes, predominatly neutrophils.
is of longer duration, lasting for days to years, and is associated with the proliferation of bl. vessels, tissue necrosis, and fibrosis.
Cells of inflammation
- endothelial cells- lining of bl. vessels, produce antiplatelets and antithrombiotic agents that maintain vessel patency as well as vasodialators and vasoconstrictions.
- platelets- active role in hemostasis; activated platelets release a # of potent inflammatory mediators.
- Leukocytes- major celllular component of the inflammatory response. in acute- neutrophiles in chronic lymphocytes, macrophages, plasma cells, mast cells, and eosinophils.
- Neutrophils- 1st to appear at site of acute inflammation, engulf bacteria & cellular debris.
- Eosinophils- used to kill parasites, asthma, allergy.
- Basophil- impt. in allergy reactions mediated by IgE.
- Monocytes- produce potent vasoactive mediators that promotes regeneration of tissues.
- Lymphocytes- participate in immunmediated and non-immune mediated inflammtion.
- Early reaction of local tissues and their bl. vessels to injury.
- Occurs before the adaptive immune response becomes established.
- Cardinal signs of inflammation- redness, swelling, warmth, pain, loss of function.
- Aimed at primarily at removing the injurous agent and limiting the extent of tissue damage.
Local acute manifestations
- Determind by severity of the reaction, its specific cause, the site of involvement, can range from mild swelling and redness to abscess formation or ulceration.
- Host response can cause more damage than microbe itself.
Outcomes of manifestations
resolution- replacement of any irreversibly injured cells and return of tissues to their normal function and structure.
Progression to chronic inflammation
may follow inflammation if offending agent is not removed
scaring and fibrosis
substantial tissue injury or when there is substatial tissue injury or when inflammtion occurs in tissues that don't generate.
- self perpetuating.
- may last for weeks, months, or years.
- from recurrent or progressive acute inflammatory process or low-grade smoldering responses that fail to evoke an acute response.
Causes of chronic inflammation
- low grade or persistent infections or irritants that are unable to penetrate deeply or spread rapidly.
- diseases that cause excessive inappropriate activation of immune system.
- viruses, bacteria, fungi, parasites,
Systemic manifestation of inflammation
acute pahse response- occurs w/in hrs or dbays of onset of inflammtion or infection. includes change in  of plasma proteins, skeletal muscle catabolism, neg. nirtogen balance, inc. ESR and inc. leukocytes.
- Elevation in body temp. that results from a cytokine induced inc. in the set point of the thermostatic center in the hypothalamus.
- Will resolve when the condition that's causing the inc. set point of thermostatic center of hypthalamus is resolved.
Any tissue that has been damaged by either intentional or accidental means.
- closed wound- skin intact but underlying tissue damage.
- open wound- integrity of skin destroyed.
- abrasion, laceration, thermal, contusion, puncture.