Pediatric ID

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Pediatric ID
2016-08-23 12:51:40
Infectious disease pediatrics

Quiz of common pediatric infections and their treatment
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  1. What is the treatment of choice for suppurative dental infections in children?
    • In hospitalized children:
    • -IV Ampicillin/Sulbactam (UNASYN) OR
    • -IV Clindamycin

    • Beta-lactamase production among oral anaerobes, particularly pigmented Prevotella spp and Fusobacterium spp, is increasingly recognized, and treatment failure with penicillin alone has been well documented. Thus, penicillin monotherapy is no longer recommended. Ampicillin-sulbactam provides extended coverage against oral anaerobes, including those that produce beta-lactamases, and is the treatment of choice. An alternative is penicillin G in combination with metronidazole (500 mg IV or orally every eight hours). Although metronidazole is highly active against anaerobic gram-negative bacilli and spirochetes, it is only moderately active against anaerobic cocci and is not active against aerobes, including streptococci . As a result, it should not be used as a single agent in odontogenic infections except in acute necrotizing gingivitis and advanced periodontitis. Penicillin-allergic patients should be treated with clindamycin (600 mg IV every eight hours). Erythromycin and tetracycline are not recommended because of increasing resistance among some strains of streptococci and their lack of optimal anaerobic activity. In the compromised host, such as the patient with leukemia and severe neutropenia after chemotherapy, it is prudent to cover for facultative gram-negative bacilli (including Pseudomonas spp) as well, and agents with broad-spectrum activity against both aerobes and anaerobes are desirable.
  2. What are the treatments for streptococcal pharyngitis in non-penicillin allergic patients?
    • Penicillin VK
    • -<27kg (60lbs): 250mg 2-3 times daily x10 days
    • ->27kg (60lbs): 500mg 2-3 times daily x10 days

    Amoxicillin-50mg/kg once daily (1g max.)x10 days
  3. What are the treatments for streptococcal pharyngitis in penicillin allergic patients?
    • Cephalexin (don't use if Type I allergy to PCN)
    • -Child: 25-100mg/kg/day divq6-12h x10days
    • -Adult: 500mg BID-TIDx10days

    Clindamycin-20mg/kg/day divided in 3 doses (1.8g/day max) x10days

    Azithromycin-12mg/kg once daily (500mg max)x5days
  4. What is the youngest age to test for TB with a PPD?
    "A negative result is especially unreliable in infants <3 months" -RedBook 2009
  5. What is the standard dosing regimen of INH (9mo regimen) for treatment of LTBI?
    • Adults: 300mg daily
    • Children: 10-15mg/kg/daily
  6. Which patients require routine LFTs during 9 months of INH?
    Routine determination of serum transaminase concentrations during the 9 months of therapy for LTBI is not indicated except for children and adolescents who: (1) have concurrent or recent liver or biliary disease; (2) are pregnant or in the first 12 weeks postpartum; (3) are having clinical evidence of hepatotoxic effects; or (4) concurrently are taking other hepatotoxic drugs (eg, anticonvulsant or HIV agents)
  7. Which patients being treated for LTBI with INH need pyridoxine (B6) supplementation?
    • Patients with conditions that can predispose to neuropathy (including diabetes, uremia, alcoholism, malnutrition, and HIV infection)
    • Pregnant women
    • Seizure disorders.
    • Infants of breastfeeding mothers receiving INH
  8. What is the dose of Pyridoxine used to supplement INH treatment in high-risk groups?
    • Infants and Children: 1 mg/kg/day; 50 mg/day MAX
    • Adolescents and adults: 25 to 50 mg per day
  9. Your patient develops neuropathy while on INH and wants to discontinue therapy. What is the next treatment option available?
    • Rifampin:
    • -Adults: 600mg daily x 4 months
    • -Children: 10-20mg/kg/daily x 6 months
  10. What is the dosage of common medications used for conjunctivitis?
    • Polytrim drops-1-2 drops to affected eye(s) every 4 hours for 7 days
    • Erythromycin ophthalmic ointment-apply thin ribbon to affected eye(s) every 4 hours for 7 days.
  11. What is the empiric antibiotic of choice for children with acute IE?
    In children with a fulminant presentation of IE, Staphylococcus aureus is the most common cause. Therefore, prompt initiation of antimicrobial therapy with a bactericidal agent such as vancomycin is warranted.