Bio-40 Vocab

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Bio-40 Vocab
2011-02-20 19:59:11
Immune System Disease Vocab

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  1. disease
    any change other than an injury that disrupts the normal function of the body
  2. *Describe some of the causes of disease.
    *Some diseases are produced by agents, such as bacteria, viruses, and fungi. Others are caused by materials in the environment, such as cigarette smoke. Still others, such as hemophilia, are inherited.
  3. pathogens
    disease-causing agents; means "sickness makers"
  4. germ theory of disease
    infectious deseases were caused by microorgansims of different types, commonly called germs
  5. Koch's postulates
    1. The pathogen should always be found in the body of a sick organism and should not be found in a healthy one.

    2. The pathogen must be isolated and grown in the laboratory in pure culture.

    3. When the cultured pathogens are placed in a new host, they should cause the same disease that infected the oringinal host.

    4. The injected pathogen should be isolated from the second host. It should be identical to the original pathogen.
  6. *What are the ways in which infectious diseases are spread?
    *Some infectious diseases are spread from one person to another through coughing, sneezing, or physical contact. Other infectious diseases are spread though contaminated water of food. Still others are spread by infected animals.
  7. vectors
    animals that carry pathogens from person to person
  8. antibiotics
    compounds that kill bacteria without harming the cells of the human or animal hosts
  9. *Describe the function of the immune system.
    *The function of the immune system is to fight infection through the production of cells that inactivate foreign substances or cells.
  10. immunity
    ability of the body to resist a certain pathogen
  11. *Describe the body's nonspecific defenses against pathogens.
    *Your body's most important nonspecific defense is the skin.
  12. inflammatory response
    nonspecific defense reaction to tissue damage caused by injury or infection
  13. *Describe the body's nonspecific defenses against pathogens.
    *The inflammatory response is a nonspecific defense reaction to tissue damage caused by injury or infection.
  14. fever
    elevated body temperature that occurs in result to infection
  15. interferons
    one of a group of proteins that help cells resist viral infection
  16. immune response
    the body's specific defenses that attack a disease-causing agent
  17. antigen
    substance that triggers immune response
  18. humoral immunity
    immunity against antigens and pathogens in the body fluids (B cells)
  19. cell-mediared immunity
    immunity against abnormal cells and pathogens inside living cells (T cells)
  20. antibodies
    protiens that recognize and bind to antigens
  21. vaccination
    the injection of a weakened form of a pathogen to produce immunity
  22. active immunity
    immunity produced by exposure to an antigen as a result of the immune response
  23. passive immunity
    short-term immunity caused when antibodies produced by other animals for a pathogen are injected into the body
  24. allergies
    overreaction of the immune system to antigens
  25. histamines
    chemical that increases the flow of blood and fluids to the surrounding area
  26. asthma
    chronic respiratory disease in which the air passages becom narrower than normal
  27. *What happens in an autoimmune disease?
    *When the immune system makes a mistake and attacks the body's own cells, it produces an autoimmune disease.
  28. *How can AIDS and HIV be prevented?
    *The only no-risk behavior with respect to HIV and AIDS is abstinence.
  29. risk factor
    anything that increases the chance of disease or injury
  30. *Describe the environmental factors that infect your health.
    *Environmental factors that can affect your health include air and water quality, poisonous wastes in landfills, and exposure to solar radiation.
  31. tumor
    mass of growing tissue that begins when a cell or a group of cels begin to grow and divide uncontrollably
  32. carcinogens
    chemical compound known to cause cancer
  33. *Name three things you can do to maintain your health.
    *Healthful bahaviors include eating a healthful diet, getting plenty of exercise and rest, abstaining from harmful activities, and having regular checkups.