Beginning nervous system

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Author:
pa2012
ID:
67530
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Beginning nervous system
Updated:
2011-02-19 19:03:52
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CABS PA class PBL
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Description:
nervous structures with some description/qualities
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  1. CN I
    • Olfactory nerve
    • Sense of smell
    • exits brain through olfactory foramina
  2. CN II
    • Optic Nerve
    • Visual acuity, visual fields
    • Exits brain through optic canal
  3. CN III
    • Occulomotor N.
    • -Innervates levator palpebrae superioris, superior rectus, medial rectus, inferior rectus, inferior oblique extraocular muscles
    • -Provides parasympathetic innervation that constrict the eye and change lense shape

    Exits brain through superior orbital fissure
  4. CN IV
    • Trochlear n.
    • Controls: Superior oblique muscles (Down and inward motion)
    • Exits brain through superior orbital fissure
  5. CN V
    • Trigemnian Nerve
    • - receives sensation from face
    • -responsible for corneal reflex
    • -innervates muscles of mastication
    • Goes through superior orbital fissure, foramen rotundum, and foramen ovale
  6. CN VI-
    • Abducens nerve:
    • -innervates lateral rectus muscle (allowing ABduction of eye)
    • Exits brain through superior orbital fissure
  7. CN VII
    • Facial nerve
    • - Motor innervation to: Facial expression muscles, posterior belly of digastric m., stapedius muscle
    • -taste on anterior 2/3 tongue
    • -secretomotor innervation to salivary glands (except parotid), lacrimal gands,
    • -located and goes through internal acoustic canal to facial canal and exits sckull at styylomastoid foramen
    • Branches: temproaly, zygamatic, buccal, mandibular, cervical
  8. CN VIII
    • Vestibulocochlear n.
    • -senses sound, rotation, gravity
    • -carries impulses for equlibrium (in terms of being level)
    • - Chochlear branche carries hearing impulses
    • -located in internal acoustic canal
  9. CN IX
    • Glossopharyngeal N.
    • Taste: posterior 1/3 tongue
    • Secretemotor innervation to parotid gland
    • -motor innervation to stylopharyngeus
    • -sensory innervation from palatine tonsils
    • -Exits brain through jugular foramen
  10. CN X
    • Vagus n.
    • -motor innervation to most laryngeal and al pharyngeal muscles
    • -parasmpathetic innervation to heart, GI tract, lungs
    • -Leaves skulll through jugular foramen
  11. CN XI
    • Cranial Accessory n
    • - overlaps some vagus fxn
    • -innervates sternocleidomastoid and trapezius
    • -Damage= inability to shrug, weak head movements
    • -leaves skull through jugular foramen
  12. CN XII
    • Hypoglossal nerve
    • -motor innervation to tongue muscles (except palatoglossus) and other glossal muscles
    • -important to swallowing and speech
    • -leaves skull through hypoglossal canal
  13. Brodman Area 4 contains:
    • The primary motor cortex (in the precentral gyrus)
    • -Corticospinal tract starts here
  14. Brodman Area 6
    Premotor cortex; in charge of motor planning, immediately anterior to Brodman area 4
  15. Brodman Areas 1,2,3
    • Postcentral gyrus
    • -contains primary somatosensory cortex
    • - pain, touch, vibration, position
  16. Brodman areas 5 & 7
    • Somatosensory association area
    • -Assocation area
    • -immediately posterior ot primary somatosensory cortex (Brodman 1,2,3)
    • -combine senses to be recognized by the frontal lobe: stereognosis, graphestesia
  17. Corticospinal tract
    • Divided into anterior and lateral corticospinal tract.
    • -Lateral corticospinal (pyramidal) tract: found near dorsal horn
    • -Anterior (ventral) corticospinal tract:
  18. lateral Corticospinal tract (pyramidal tract)
    • innervates fine motor: esp upper extremities
    • --crosses over at the cervicomedullary jxn
    • --R brain injuries (before cervicomedullary jxn) cause L lateral corticospinal tract deficits in the peripbery
  19. Anterior (ventral) corticospinal tract
    - Controls postural/trunk muscles
  20. Dorsal Column system
    • Sensory: vibration, position, fine touch (2 pt)
    • Divided into:
    • - Gracile fasciculus
    • -Cuneate fasciculus
  21. Gracile Fasciculus
    • -part of dorsal column system
    • - fine touch, position, and vibration BELOW T6
  22. Cuneate Fasciculus tract
    • -component of dorsal column system
    • - Fine touch, position, and vibration ABOVE T6
  23. Anterolateral system
    • Includes:
    • Spinothalamic tract
    • spinoreticular tract
    • spinomesencephalic tract (spinotectal)
    • spinohypothalamic fibers
  24. Spinothalamic track
    • - pain and temperature sensation
    • -contralateral sensation: "crosses over" at the vertebrae where it enters the spinal cord or at most 2 vertebrae above that
  25. Upper Motor Neuron
    Pertaining to motor neurons in the CNS (Brain and spinal cord)
  26. Lesser Motor Neurons
    Pertains to nerves that begin in brainstem/spinal cord that exit as cranial/spinal nerves to muscles
  27. Corticobulbar spinal tract
    starts in cortex of brain, goes to brainstem
  28. Rubrospinal tract
    • Contributes to the upper motor neurons.
    • -injuries to corticobulbar and corticospinal tracts may not result in hypertonicity of rubrospinal tract remains intact
  29. Lateral corticospinal (pyramidal) tract
    • -largest motor tract
    • -voluntary, highly skilled fractionated movement tract
    • -decussation at cervicomedullary jxn

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