Tiff Ch14

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Tiff Ch14
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Tiff Ch14
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  1. The study of disease
    Pathology
  2. The study of the cause of a disease
    Etiology
  3. The development of disease and how it affects the body
    Pathogenesis
  4. Colonization of the body by pathogens
    Infection
  5. An abnormal state in which the body is not functioning normally
    Disease
  6. True or False:
    Infectious disease is the primary cause of death worldwide.
    True (according to Ms. House verbally)
  7. ___ microbiota may be present for days, weeks, or months, and then they may disappear.
    Transient
  8. ___ microbiota permanently colonize the host.
    Normal
  9. ___ is the relationship between normal microbiota and the host.
    Symbiosis
  10. True or false:
    Normal microbiota tend to cause disease.
    False - normal microbiota do not cause disease.
  11. In regards to microbiota, what term describes the phrase "the good guys limit the growth of the bad guys"?
    Microbial Antagonism
  12. The three types of symbiosis are:
    • 1-Commensalism
    • 2-Mutualism
    • 3-Parasitism
  13. Type of Symbiosis:
    One organism benefits and the other is unaffected
    Commensalism
  14. Type of Symbiosis:
    Both orgamisns benefit
    Mutualism
  15. Type of Symbiosis:
    One organism benefits and one is harmed
    Parasitism
  16. Give an example of a normal microbiota who is also an opportunistic pathogen:
    E coli ~ This microbe exists in the body and is harmless UNLESS it is introduced into an abnormal area (the urethra for example)
  17. ___ ___ is a competition between microbes. It prevents the overgrowth of pathogens.
    Microbial antagonism
  18. What 3 ways do normal microbiota protect the host against pathogens?
    • -Occupying niches (places) that pathogens might occupy
    • -Producing acids that limit the growth of pathogens
    • -Producing bacteriocins (like natural antibiotics)
  19. ___ are live microbes applied to or ingested into the body, intended to exert a beneficial effect. (like acidophilus)
    Probiotics
  20. Used to prove the cause of an infectious disease.
    Koch's Postulates
  21. A change in body function that is felt by a patient as a result of disease. *subjective
    Symptom
  22. A change in a body that can be measured or observed as a result of disease. *objective
    Sign
  23. A specific group of signs and symptoms that accompany a disease.
    Syndrome
  24. A disease that is spread from one host to another; Fairly easy to catch; Ex. Chicken pox, TB, Herpes, etc.
    Communicable disease
  25. A disease that is easily spread from one host to another; Super easy to catch; Ex. Chicken pox, measles
    Contagious disease
  26. A disease that is not transmitted from one host to another. Ex. Tetanus, rabies
    Noncommunicable disease
  27. Fraction of a population that contracts a disease during a specific time; Ex. "10% of the population has the flu between December and March"
    Incidence
  28. Fraction of a population having a specific disease at a given time:
    Prevelance
  29. Disease that occurs occasionally in a population; Ex. Flu, Ebola
    Sporadic disease
  30. Disease constantly present in a population; Ex. Common cold
    Endemic disease
  31. Disease acquired by many hosts in a given area in a short time; Ex. gonorrhea & influenza
    Epidemic disease
  32. Worldwide epidemic; Ex. HIV/AIDS
    Pandemic disease
  33. Immunity in most of a population due to either exposure or immunizations (Some areas have genetic immunity)
    Herd Immunity
  34. Disease in which symptoms develop rapidly; Ex. influenza
    Acute disease
  35. Disease develops slowly with less severe symptoms but lasts longer; Ex. Mono
    Chronic disease
  36. Disease in which the symptoms are between acute and chronic.
    Subacute disease
  37. Disease with a period of no symptoms when the patient is inactive; Ex. AIDS, chicken pox, shingles, MS:
    Latent disease
  38. Infection in which pathogens are limited to a small area of the body:
    Local infection
  39. An infection throughout the body:
    Systemic infection
  40. Systemic infection that began as a local infection:
    Focal infection
  41. Bacteria in the blood:
    Bacteremia
  42. Growth of bacteria in the blood:
    Septicemia
  43. Toxins in the blood:
    Toxemia
  44. Viruses in the blood:
    Viremia
  45. Acute infection that causes the initial illness:
    Primary infection
  46. Opportunistic infection after a primary (predisposing) infection:
    Secondary infection
  47. No noticeable signs or symptoms (inapparent infection):
    Subclinical disease
  48. ___ ___ make the body more suseptible to disease. Examples: female urethra (short), inherited traits, climate & weather, fatigue, age, lifestyle, chemotherapy, etc.
    Predisposing factors
  49. ___ of infection are continual sources of infection. (Aids for humans; rabies for animals)
    Reservoirs
  50. ___, such as rabies or lyme disease, can be transmitted from animals/insects to humans.
    Zoonoses
  51. Any non-living thing that can carry microbes (towels, sheets, silverware, etc.)
    Fomite
  52. Transmission of disease:
    Requires close association between infected and susceptible host.
    Direct contact
  53. Transmission of disease:
    Spread by fomites.
    Indirect contact
  54. Transmission of disease:
    Transmission via airborne droplets.
    Droplet contact
  55. Transmission of disease by an inanimate reservoir (food, water).
    Vehicle transmission
  56. Transmission of disease by animals that carry pathogens from one host to another (fleas, ticks, mosquitos)
    Vectors
  57. The passive transport of the disease/pathogens on the insect’s feet or other body parts
    Mechanical transmission
  58. Transmission of disease:
    Pathogen reproduces in vector
    Biological transmission
  59. An infection that develops during the course of a hospital stay and was not present at the time the patient was admitted:
    Nosocomial Infection
  60. True or False:
    5-15% of all hospital patients acquire nosocomial infections.
    TRUE
  61. The most common type of nosocomial infection patients acquire during their hospital stay is ___ ___ infection; it accounts for 40%.
    urinary tract
  62. Diseases that are new, increasing in incidence, or showing a potential to increase in the near future.
    Emerging Infectious Diseases
  63. List at least 3 contributing factors to EID's:
    Genetic recombination; Evolution of new strains; Inapproriate use of antibiotics and pesticides; Changes in weather patterns; Modern transportation; Ecological disaster; war; expanding human settlement; Animal control measures; Public health failures.
  64. The study of where and when diseases occur:
    Epidemiology
  65. Mapped the occurrence of cholera in London (1848-1849)
    John Snow
  66. Showed that hand washing decreased the incidence of puerperal fever (1846-1848)
    Ignaz Semmelweis
  67. Showed that improved sanitation decreased the incidence of epidemic typhus (1858)
    Florence Nightingale
  68. Collection and analysis of data regarding occurrence of disease
    Descriptive
  69. Comparison of a diseased group and a healthy group
    Analytical
  70. Study of a disease using controlled experiments
    Experimental
  71. Health care workers report specified disease to local, state, and national offices
    Case Reporting
  72. Physicians are required to report occurrence
    Nationally Notifiable Diseases
  73. Incidence of a specific notifiable disease.
    Morbidity
  74. Deaths from notifiable diseases.
    Mortality
  75. Number of people affected in relation to the total population in a given time period.
    Morbidity rate
  76. Number of deaths from a disease in relation to the population in a given time.
    Mortality rate
  77. Collects and analyzes epidemiological information in the United States.
    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention

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