Tiff Ch15

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micro
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67554
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Tiff Ch15
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2011-02-19 21:55:20
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Tiff Ch15
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  1. The ability to cause disease.
    Pathogenicity
  2. The extent of pathogenicity.
    Virulence
  3. 3 portals of entry for pathogens:
    • 1-Skin (hair follicles, sweat glands, wounded skin)
    • 2-Mucous membranes (Respiratory, gastro and genitals)
    • 3-Parenteral route (insect bites, puncture wounds)
  4. The number of microorganisms required to produce an infection in 50% of the test host population.
    ID50
  5. Lethal dose (of a toxin) for 50% of the test population.
    LD50
  6. Describe the adhesion process between a pathogen and it's host:
    Surface molecules on the pathogen called, adhesins or ligands, bind specifically to complementary surface receptors on the cells of certain host tissues.
  7. Enzymes that coagulate blood:
    Coagulase
  8. Enzymes that digest fibrin clots;
    Kinases
  9. Enzyme; Hydrolyses hyaluronic acid:
    Hyaluronidase
  10. Enzyme; Hydrolyzes collagen:
    Collagenase
  11. Enzyme that destroys IgA antibodies:
    IgA proteases
  12. Enzyme that takes iron from host iron-binding proteins:
    Siderophores
  13. Enzyme that alters surface proteins:
    Antigenic variation
  14. Substances that contribute to pathogenicity:
    Toxins
  15. Ability to produce a toxin:
    Toxigenicity
  16. Presence of toxin in the host's blood:
    Toxemia
  17. Inactivated toxin used in a vaccine:
    Toxoid
  18. Antibodies against a specific toxin:
    Antitoxin
  19. Part of the outer portion of the cell wall (lipid A) of most gram-negative bacteria; released on destruction of the cell:
    Endotoxin
  20. A protein toxin released from living, mostly gram-positive bacterial cells; membrane disrupting toxins; lyse cell by either making protein channels or disrupting phospholipid bilayer:
    Exotoxin
  21. ___ waste products may cause symptoms.
    Fungal
  22. ___ fungal infections provoke an allergic response.
    Chronic
  23. ___ toxins inhibit protein synthesis.
    Tichothecene
  24. Fungi contain ___, which is an enzyme that begins the breakdown of proteins.
    protease
  25. Fungi contain capsules which prevent the process of ___.
    phagocytosis
  26. A toxin produced in sclerotia by the fungus Claviceps purpurea that causes ergotism.
    Ergot Toxin
  27. Fungal property: A carcinogenic toxin produced by Aspergillus flavus.
    Aflatoxin
  28. A toxin produced by a fungus, including mushrooms:
    Mycotoxins
  29. The presence of ___ and their waste products often produces disease symptoms in the host.
    protozoa
  30. ___ avoid the defenses of the host by growing in phagocytes and antigenic variation.
    Protozoa
  31. Some of these organisms actually use host tissues for their own growth or produce large parasitic masses; the resulting cellular damage evokes the symptoms.
    Helminths
  32. Paralytic shellfish poisoning and domoic acid intoxication are examples of the pathogenic properties of ___.
    algea
  33. The path by which a pathogen leaves the body is termed:
    Portal of exit
  34. A portal of exit for a pathogen is the ___ ___ by coughing, sneezing, etc.
    respiratory tract
  35. A portal of exit for a pathogen is the ___ ___ by feces or saliva.
    gastrointestinal tract
  36. A portal of exit for a pathogen is the ___ ___ by urine and vaginal secretions.
    genitourinary tract
  37. A portal of exit for a pathogen is the ___ by sweating.
    skin
  38. A portal of exit for a pathogen is the ___ biting arthropods, needles or syringes.
    blood

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