Tiff Ch16

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Tiff Ch16
2011-02-20 18:49:34
Tiff Ch16

Tiff Ch16
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  1. Lack of resistance to a disease:
  2. Ability to ward/avoid off disease:
  3. Defenses against any pathogen. First and second line of defense:
    Innate immunity
  4. Immunity, resistance to a specific pathogen. Third line of defense:
    Adaptive Immunity
  5. Ciliated mucosal cells of the lower respiratory tract that move inhaled particulates away from the lungs:
    Ciliary Escalator
  6. What physical factors help in innate immunity?
    • -Epidermis (tightly packed cells-keratin)
    • -Mucous membranes
    • -Ciliary Escalator
    • -Lacrimal Apparatus
    • -Saliva
    • -Urine
    • -Vaginal seretions
  7. When chemical factors help in innate immunity?
    • -Fungistatic fatty acid in sebum
    • -Low pH of skin (3-5)
    • -Lysozymes (destroy tissue)
    • -Low pH of gastric juices (1.2-3)
    • -Transferrins in the blood iron
    • -NO inhibits ATP production
  8. Normal microbiota compete with pathogens for water, area food, etc:
    Microbial antagonism / Competitive Exclusion
  9. Blood ___ are similar to megakaryocytes.
  10. Name types of WBCs in order from largest to smallest:
    • -Neutrophils (60-70%) fight infection
    • -Lymphocytes (20-25%) B & T cells
    • -Monocytes (3-8%) become macrophages
    • -Eosinophils (2-4%) worm killers
    • -Basophils (0.5-1%) release chemicals
  11. What is special about the WBC: Neutrophil
  12. What is special about the WBC:
    Involved in specific immunity
  13. What is special about the WBC:
    Phagocytic as mature macrophages; Fixed macrophages in lungs, liver, and bronchi grab "bad guys" as they float by
  14. What is special about the WBC:
    Toxic to parasites and some are phagocytic
  15. What is special about the WBC:
    Produce histamine and heparin
  16. What does "phago" mean?
    Greek - meaning "eat"
  17. What does "cyte" mean?
    Greek - meaning "cell"
  18. Ingestion of microbes or particles by a cell, performed by phagocytes.
  19. Inhibit adherence: M protein, capsules
    Streptococcus pyogenes, S. pneumoniae
  20. Kill phagocytes: Leukocidins
    Staphylococcus aureus
  21. Lyse phagocytes: Membrane attack complex
  22. Escape phagosome
  23. Prevent phagosome-lysosome fusion
  24. Survive in phagolysosome
    Coxiella burnetti – causes Q fever requires host cell to reproduce in aerosol – may be in contaminated milk transmission.
  25. 4 signs of imflammation:
    • 1 heat
    • 2 redness
    • 3 pain
    • 4 swelling
  26. Regarding Inflammation:
    Swelling is a result of what?
    WBC cells traveling out of the blood vessels (followed by interstitial fluid)
  27. Regarding Inflammation:
    Pain is a result of what?
  28. Regarding Inflammation:
    Redness and heat are a result of what?
    Extra blood supply to the area
  29. Regarding inflammation:
    Dilation of the blood vessels is ___.
  30. Vasodilation allows ___ and ___ of the WBCs. They leave the blood vessels and start to travel to the damaged area.
    margination / immigration
  31. What are the 4 chemicals involved in vasodilation?
    Histamine, kinins, prostoglandins, & leokotrienes.
  32. The body's thermostat is located where? What temperature does it normally set at?
    Located in the hypothalamus / 37oC
  33. Gram-negative ___ cause phagocytes to release interleukin–1 (IL–1).
  34. Hypothalamus releases ___that reset the hypothalamus to a high temperature.
  35. Body increases rate of metabolism and shivering which raise ___.
  36. When IL–1 is eliminated, body temperature ___ (crisis).
  37. What are the advantages of fever?
    • -Increase transferrins (transferrins hide iron, bacteria need iron to reproduce)
    • -Increase IL–1 activity, which helps with immunity response.
  38. What are the disadvantages of fever?
    • -Tachycardia – fast HR
    • -Acidosis – low pH
    • -Dehydration
  39. What is the term for cell destruction?
  40. Serum proteins activated in a cascade series; part of 2nd line of defense:
    Complement System
  41. "tasty coating"; makes a microbe more appealing to a phagocyte so it will be eaten quicker!
  42. Microbial plasma membrane destroys the cell by bursting due to an inflow if ___ ___ (membrane attack complex).
    cellular fluid
  43. Some bacteria evade the effects of complement by 3 ways:
    • -Capsules prevent C activation.
    • -Surface lipid-carbohydrates prevent MAC formation.
    • -Enzymatic digestion of C5a.
  44. Cause cells to produce antiviral proteins that inhibit viral replication.
    Alpha IFN and Beta IFN
  45. Causes neutrophils and macrophages to phagocytize bacteria.
    Gamma IFN
  46. ___ bind and hide iron from microbes.