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cleng
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sample question 4-6
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  1. Which of the following statements about carbohydrates in the diet is not true
    a.
    Carbohydrates are needed to spare protein.

    b.
    Carbohydrates are to be 45-65% of the total kcalories.
    c.
    Carbohydrates provide the fatty acids needed for cellular energy.

    d.
    Carbohydrates provide the primary source of energy for brain cells.
    c.Carbohydrates provide the fatty acids needed for cellular energy
  2. During fasting, what is a primary concern?

    a.
    liver glycogen surplus
    b.
    increased metabolism rate
    c.
    catabolism of muscle cells
    d.
    protein cannot provide glucose for brain cells
    C.catabolism of muscle cells
  3. A recommended behavior to lose a pound of excess body fat a week would be to:
    a.
    fast.
    b.
    decrease resting metabolic rate (RMR). c.
    increase water intake to 6-8 glasses a day.
    d.
    eliminate two granola bars containing 250 kcalories each.
    d. eliminate two granola bars containing 250 kcalories each
  4. A way to increase the basal metabolic rate is to:
    a.
    increase body mass that will increase the total energy expended on basal metabolic activities.

    b.
    engage in regular aerobic and resistance exercises that will increase lean muscle mass.
    c.
    maximize the thermic effect of food.

    d.
    sleep 8-9 hours at bedtime.
    b. engage in regular aerobic and resistance exercises that will increase lean muscle mass.
  5. The BMI is most useful in:
    a.
    assessing risk for disease.
    b.
    assessing degree of obesity.
    c.
    determining location of fat distribution.
    d.
    evaluating the amount of fat in a person's weight.
    b. assessing degree of obesity
  6. Which of the following persons is at highest risk for chronic illnesses such as diabetes, hypertension, and increased low-density lipoprotein?
    a.
    "pear-shaped" male

    b.
    tall person with larger surface area
    c.
    person who has low alcohol consumption
    d.
    female with waist circumference greater than 35 inches
    d. female with waist circumference greater than 35 inches
  7. The site for most accurate assessment of fatfold measurements is the:
    A. calf.
    B. abdomen.
    C. upper arm.
    D. thigh.
    C. upper arm.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  8. The body stores fat
    A. extracellular tissue
    B. the liver
    C. subcutaneous tissue
    D. adipose tissue
    D. adipose tissue
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  9. Fat stored in cells supplies ____ of the body's energy needs res
    A. 80%
    B. 60%
    C. 30%
    D. 50%
    B. 60%
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  10. The fat is the most abundant in our diet and body
    a. triglycerides
    b. linoleic acid
    c. cholesterols
    d. trans fatty acids
    a
  11. Vitamins A and C added unsaturated oils to prevent
    a. denaturation
    b. rancidity
    c. hydrogenation
    d. deaminition
    b
  12. What functional food ingridients is not absorbed by the body and reduces the absorption of cholesterols?
    a. trans fat
    b. mannitol
    c. plant sterols
    d. lecithin
    c
  13. All of the following features of a hydrogenated fat except that it:
    a. is protected from oxidants
    b. is healthy
    c. alters the texture of food
    d. make saturated fat less healthy
    b
  14. If your diet was missing or low in omega 3 fatty acids, which food could be includeed in your diet to correct this dificiency
    a. red meat
    b. vegetable oils
    c. whole eggs
    d. fish oils
    d
  15. If a person consumes little or no vegetable oils, seeds, nuts, whole grain, his or her diet may be lacking in which nutrients?
    a. linoleic acid
    b. ateric acid
    c. EPA
    d. sterols
    a
  16. Lecithins and other phospholipids are key:
    a. for energy metabolism
    b. buffers
    c. contituents of cell membranes
    d. hormones
    c
  17. Which fat does the body recycle
    a. linoleic acid
    b. cholesterol
    c. linolenic acid
    d. trans fat
    b
  18. Which nutrients reduces the reabsorption of cholesterol from bile?
    a. water
    b. iron
    c. vitamin D
    d. soluble fibers
    d
  19. Cholesterol is found in all but which food?
    a. butter
    b. lean fish
    c. lean meat
    d. margarine
    d
  20. The primary factor influencing blood cholesterol is the level intake of :
    a. dietary cholesterol
    b. unsaturarated fat
    c. saturated fat
    d. excessive kcalories
    c
  21. One dietary fatty acid is effective at lowering LDL cholesterol, which one is it?
    a. linoleic acid
    b. monounsaturated fatty acid
    c. linolenic acid
    oleic acid
    a
  22. When fat and oil intake falls below____ of kcal there is a greater risk that the diet will not provide an adequate amount of essential fatty acid.
    a. 20
    b. 25
    c. 30
    d. 35
    a
  23. The dietary guidlines for Americans recommended that intake of cholesterol be no more than :
    a. 200mg/day
    b. 250mg/day
    c. 300mg/day
    d. 350mg/day
    c
  24. The DGAm state that less than 10% OF kcal should come from:
    a. Unsaturated fats
    b. saturated fats
    c. trans fat
    d cholesterol
    b
  25. Which fat contributes the most elevating blodd cholesterol?
    a. USF
    b. SF
    c. essential fat
    d. cholesterol
    b
  26. Most vegetables are low in fat, with exception of avocados, which are high?
    a. USF
    b. SF
    c. trans fat
    d. cholesterol
    a
  27. The fat olestra is not absorbed by the body and can reduce the absorption of key nutrients, What does the FDA require that olestra be fortified with?
    a. MUSF
    b. Vit C
    c. linolenic acid
    d. Vits A,D,E,K
    d
  28. Decreasing dietary saturated fats and replacing them with PUSF will:
    a. inclease HDL
    b. decrease phospholipids
    c. decrease LDL cholesterol
    d. decrease triglycerides
    c
  29. To reduce your risk of heart disease, you should reduce :
    a. lipoproteins
    b. LDL cholesterol
    c. chylomicrons
    d HDL cholesterol
    b
  30. The person who carries excess body fat is at lower risk for related disease if the fat distribution is:
    a.
    visceral.
    b.
    subcutaneous.
    c.
    at the waistline.

    d.
    intra-abdominal
    b
  31. A factor that does not affect the BMR is:
    a.
    age.
    b.
    fever.
    c.
    heart rate.
    d.
    pregnancy.
    c
  32. Which of the following is true of high-protein, low-carbohydrate diets?
    a.
    Blood lipids improve while on these diets.
    b.
    Evidence supports that these diets lower blood pressure.
    c.
    Weight loss is usually maintained beyond the first year on the diet.
    d.
    Diets high in protein and low in carbohydrates do not lower risk factors for heart disease.
    d
  33. Research has shown that intra-abdominal fat reduction is more likely to occur when:
    a.
    > 30% of kcalories are derived from fat.
    b.
    protein is increased to 25% protein versus 12%.
    c.
    carbohydrates are reduced to < 40% of kcalories.
    d.
    six smaller meals are taken daily versus three regular meals.
    b
  34. Patient teaching regarding "good" carbs based on glycemic effect should include:
    a.
    glycemic effect of a food is the same for all persons.
    b.
    all whole-grain foods have a low glycemic effect.
    c.
    foods with a low glycemic effect facilitate weight loss.

    d.
    glycemic effect can be modulated when eaten with certain other foods.
    d
  35. Low-carbohydrate diets that produce ketones allow a weight loss that:
    a.
    may be related to a long-term loss of appetite.
    b.
    represents loss of body fat and salvage of body protein.
    c.
    results from loss of large quantities of body fluids and minerals.
    d.
    is a greater and longer sustained weight loss than on other diets.
    c
  36. To achieve weight loss, success depends on:
    a.
    genetics.
    b.
    ability to fast.
    c.
    low energy intake.
    d.
    low energy output.
    c
  37. A function of protein is to help maintain fluid distribution by:
    a.
    diffusion.
    b.
    arterial pressure.
    c.
    osmotic pressure.
    d.
    hydrostatic pressure
    c
  38. A function of protein is to accept and release hydrogen ions to maintain pH. In this function proteins are called:

    a.
    acids.
    b.
    bases.
    c.
    buffers.

    d.
    denaturators.
    c
  39. Some proteins act as hormones while other hormones are made from:
    a.
    lipids.
    b.
    nitrogen.
    c.
    amino acids.
    d.
    carbohydrates.
    a
  40. Proteins act as transporters of all of the following except:
    a.
    lipids.
    b.
    insulin.
    c.
    oxygen.
    d.
    vitamins.
    b
  41. Carbohydrates are necessary in the daily diet in order to:
    a.
    build tissue.
    b.
    repair cells.
    c.
    spare protein.
    d.
    provide enzymes.
    c
  42. During starvation, glycogen and body fat are used for energy as well as:
    a.
    wasting of muscles.
    b.
    adipose tissue.
    c.
    vitamins.
    d.
    minerals.
    a
  43. Children with marasmus do not exhibit:
    a.
    lethargy.
    b.
    learning difficulties.
    c.
    weakened heart muscle.
    d.
    normal body temperature.
    d
  44. A high-protein diet can result in:
    a.
    developing PEM.
    b.
    kidney disease.
    c.
    worsening of existing renal disease.
    d.
    increased retention of calcium by the kidneys.
    c
  45. Persons at most risk for being in negative nitrogen balance include:
    a.
    persons with a protein intake representing 25% of total kcalories.
    b.
    those with multiple fractures.
    c.
    women who are lactating.
    d.
    children.
    b
  46. A teenager inquires what type of protein intake would best help him to develop lean muscle. The best response is:
    a.
    protein and amino acid supplements.
    b.
    protein derived from animal foods.
    c.
    plant protein from corn.
    d.
    plant protein from fruits.
    b
  47. In vegetarian diets, there are usually lower amounts of:
    a.
    saturated fat and cholesterol.
    b.
    protein and potassium.
    c.
    fats and carbohydrates.
    d.
    protein and fats.
    a
  48. Which statement is true about vitamin B12?
    a.
    Infants and children are less likely to be affected by a deficiency of this vitamin.
    b.
    It may take up to four years for deficiency of this vitamin to develop in adults.
    c.
    Supplements are currently not available.
    d.
    Men are at higher risk for deficiency of this vitamin.
    b
  49. Omega-3 fatty acids protect heart health by:
    a.
    decreasing time for blood to clot.
    b.
    raising the blood pressure.
    c.
    preventing inflammation.
    d.
    lowering phospholipids.
    c
  50. Risks for problems with high intakes of omega-3 fatty acids include:
    a.
    increased clotting time.
    b.
    directly increasing blood pressure.
    c.
    overstimulation of the immune system. d.
    increased low-density lipoprotein cholesterol.
    d
  51. A food source for monounsaturated fats that may be heart protective is:
    a.
    tree nuts such as walnuts, almonds, and pecans.
    b.
    fresh coconut.
    c.
    palm oil.

    d.
    liver.
    a
  52. Evidence supports the finding that high intake of saturated or trans fats can contribute to the development of all the following conditions except:
    a.
    high blood pressure.
    b.
    respiratory disease.
    c.
    atherosclerosis.
    d.
    stroke.
    b
  53. Problems associated with lack of fat and oils in the diet include all except:
    a.
    dry skin and hair.
    b.
    increased levels of lipids in blood.
    c.
    vitamin deficiencies of A, D, E, and K.
    d.
    inadequate fatty acids to fuel muscle energy.
    b
  54. Fats of fatty fish, nuts, and vegetable oils are important in the diet because they provide factors that lead to good health, including all of the following except:
    a.
    EPA and DHA.
    b.
    linoleic acid.
    c.
    linolenie acid.

    d.
    vitamin K.
    d
  55. A characteristic of unsaturated fats is that they can:

    a.
    become rancid more easily than saturated fats.

    b.
    contribute more to elevating cholesterol levels.

    c.
    remain solid at room temperature.

    d.
    come from animal products only.
    a
  56. When a cell wants a water it can:
    a. syntesize it
    b. synthesize protein
    c. shift it from the extracellural cells
    d. absorb sodium, wich wil carry water with it
    b
  57. Denaturing proteins can:
    a. improve the functionality or proteins
    b. promote storage of proteins
    c. damage proteins
    d. promote energy synthesis from proteins
    c
  58. Proteins perform many functions in the body. What is the role of structural proteins?
    a. facilitate chemical reactions
    b. regualte acid base balance
    c. form body tissues
    d. transport substances around the body
    c
  59. What percentage of a healthy individual's kcal intake should concist protein?
    a. 10-35%
    b. 25-35%
    c. 30-40%
    d. 50-65%
    a
  60. The buffering action of proteins involves the acceptance and release of
    a. carbon
    b. oxygen
    c. nitrogen
    d. hydrogen
    d
  61. Where is excess protein stored in the well-nourished individual?
    a. liver
    b. muscles
    c. adipose tissue
    d. there is no specialized storage form of protein
    d
  62. Insufficient kcal intake can result in
    a. muscle wasting
    b. decreased GI motility
    c. enhanced nutrient absorption
    d. chronic headaches
    a
  63. When digestive enzymes are in short supply and the lining of the GI tract shows signs of detorieration, the nurse might suspect:
    a. hepatitis
    b. gallbladder
    c. malnutrition
    d. diabetes
    c
  64. When a diet is inadequate in any of the essential amino acids
    a. there is increased risk of heart disease
    b. protein synthesis will be limited
    c. the person will lose weight
    d. fat will take over many of protein's function
    b
  65. Which two vit might vegan have difficulty obtaining tru or his or her diet?
    a. vit A and K
    b. vit D and b12
    c. vits C and b12
    d. vits E and A
    b
  66. One benefits of a vegetarian diet is
    a. a lower risk of certain cancers
    b. no risk for obesity
    c. it is less expensive
    d. the fats consumed are only unsaturated
    a
  67. To improve the absorption of iron, one can consume:
    a. food rich in beta carotene
    b. more iron and zinc
    c. food rich in vit C
    d. food high in fiber
    c
  68. In the vegetarian diet, generous servings of sesame seeds, legumes, and almonds can provide what important nut/
    a. zinc
    b. beta carotene
    c. vit d
    d. calcium
    d
  69. A prolonged high fever in a person can :
    a. lower their protein needs
    b. increase fluid loss
    c. denature body proteins
    d. place a burden on the heart
    c
  70. To prevent the wasting of protein the diet must contain adequate kcal from which nut?
    a. iron and vit C
    b. carbs and iron
    c. protein and fat
    d. carbs and fat
    d
  71. To consume a good source of calcium a egetarian can include ___ in her diet.
    a. starchy veg
    b. berries
    c. green, leafy veg
    d. whole grains
    c
  72. A vegan, who is a type of vegetarian, will consume:
    a. palnt based foods and eggs
    b. plant based foods and dairy products
    c. only plant based foods
    d. plant based food and fish
    c
  73. In the healthy individual, how much of the available amino acids are broken down for energy?
    a. 25%
    b. 35%
    c. 10%
    d. 50%
    c
  74. Messenger molecules such as insulin and glucagon
    a. enzymes
    b. amino acids
    c. buffers
    d. hormones
    d
  75. which protein in the blood helps to prevent acid base imbalance?
    a. lipoproteins
    b. albumin
    c. collagen
    d. insulin
    b
  76. Wasting lean muscle mass, impairment of diesease resistance, lowering of body temp, and fluid electrolyte imbalances are all observed:
    a. during feasting
    b. after strenuous activity
    c. during fasting
    d. in people on high protein diets
    d
  77. Wasting lean muscle mass, impairment of diesease resistance, lowering of body temp, and fluid electrolyte imbalances are all observed:
    a. during feasting
    b. after strenuous activity
    c. during fasting
    Low blood glucose concentration triggers
    a. the breakdown of fat
    b. the preservation of fat
    c. a lowering of basal metabolic rate
    d. the storage of protein
    a
  78. After menopause, it is common for women to develop a great amount of fat around which part of their body?
    a. shoulder and back
    b. face
    c. hips ang thighs
    d. abdominal region
    d
  79. Many fad diets result in weight loss since
    a. decrease overall kcal
    b. decrease carbs
    c. desease fat
    d. increase protein
    a
  80. Most popular weight loss diets recommend a daily kcla intake of
    a. 1000 kcal
    b. 1100 kcal
    c. 1200 kcal
    d. 1300 kcal
    c
  81. we often hear that people gain weight when they quit smoking, why?
    a. nicotine increases energy expenditure
    b. an increase in food consumption
    c. a decrease in physical activity
    d. an increase in alcohol consumption
    a
  82. The amount of energy necessary to maintain basic body function is called
    a. resting metabolic rate
    b. energy balance
    c. body mass index
    d. basal metabolism
    d
  83. Suppose a fad diet claims that it can reset your genetic code, the truth is,
    a. you inherited your genes and they cannot reset
    b. the diet alters your metabolic rate
    c. the diet increases your production of thyroxin
    d. the diet alters your feeling of hunger
    a
  84. Protein intake greater than the body needs will result in the loss of nitrogen from amino acids, which are then converted into:
    a. glucagon
    b. triglycerides
    c. ketones
    d. cholesterol
    b
  85. A fatty acid that has the maximum possible number of hydrogen atom is known as;
    a. SFA
    b.MUFA
    c. PUFA
    d. essential fatty acid
    a
  86. The difference of cis and trans fatty
    a. the number of double bonds
    b. the length of their carbon chains
    c. the location of the first double bond
    d. the configuatation around the double bond
    d
  87. Essential fatty acid;
    a. are used to make substance that regulate blood pressure among othe function
    b. can be made from carbs
    c. iclude lecithin and cholesterol
    d. connot be found in commonly eaten foods
    a
  88. lecithins and other phospholipids in the body function as:
    a. emulsifiers
    b. enzymes
    c. temperature regulator
    d. shock absorber
    a
  89. To minimize sat fat intake and lower the risk of heart disease, most people need to:
    a. eat less meat
    b. select fat free milk
    c. use nonhydrogenated margarines and cooking oil s such as olive or canola oil
    d. all of the above
    d
  90. Example of hidden fats
    a. cheese, lettuce, and fruit juices
    b. fried foods, sauces, dips, and luch meals
    d. baked potatoes, veg, and fruits
    b
  91. fish oil and weg oil are:
    a. PUF
    b. SF
    c. cholesterol
    d. tran fatty
    a
  92. The basic building blocks of proteins:
    a. side groups
    b. amino acids
    c. glucose units
    d. saturated bonds
    b
  93. Enzymes are protein that, among other things;
    a. defend the body agianst disease
    b. regulate fluid and electrolyte balance
    c. facilitate chemical reactions by changing themselves
    d. help assemble disaccharides into starch, cellulose, or glycogen
    d
  94. Marasmus can be distinguished from kwashiorkor because marasmus:
    a. only adults are victim
    b. the cause is usually an infection
    c. severe wasting of body fat and muscle occurs
    d. the limbs and face swell with edema, and the belly bulges with a fatty liver
    c
  95. An incomplete protein lacks one or more;
    a. hydrogen bonds
    b. essential fatty acids
    c. SFA
    d. essential amino acids
    d
  96. As carbs and fats stores and depleted during fasting or starvation, the body then uses ___ as its fuel source;
    a. alcohol
    b. protein
    c. glucose
    d. triglycerides
    b
  97. When carbs is not available to provide energy for the brain, as in starvation, the body produces ketone bodies from;
    a. glucose
    b. glycerol
    c. fatty acid fragments
    d. amino acids
    c
  98. Two activities that contribute to the basal metabolic rate are;a. walking and running
    b. maintenance of heartbeat and running
    c. maintenance of body temperature and walking
    d. maintenance of heartbeat and body temperature
    d
  99. Three factors that affect the body's basal metabolic rate are;
    a. height, weight and energy intake
    b. age, body, composition and height
    c. fever, body composition and altitude
    d. weight, fever and environmental temperature
    b
  100. The largest component of energy expenditure;
    a. basal metabolism
    b. physical activity
    c. indirect calometry
    d. thermic effect of food
    a
  101. Which of the folloywing reflects height and weight?
    a. BMI
    b. central obesity
    c. waist circumference
    d. body composition
    a

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