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Side effects of metoclopramide
-hyperactivity, restlessness, tremors, and constipation
(horses and cats)
ondansteron can ?????
-control emesis induced by cisplatin, chemotherapeutic agents/radiation treatment in dogs, cats, and ferrets
These block muscarinic receptors in emetic center and also inhibit PERIPHERAL transmission
-it does NOT cross blood brain barrier
drawbacks of anticholinergics
- -delays gastric emptying (CONTRIBUTING FACTOR FOR INDUCING EMESIS)
- -SHOULDN'T BE USED MORE THEN 3 DAYS IN VOMITING PATIENTS
_____ Is a hormone produced by gastrin (G cells)
-Stimulated by presence of food in the stomach (pH 3-3.5)
What acts by inducing an increase in intracellular concentration of calcium, by increasing calcium influx through selective calcium channels in the cell membrane?
Gastrin and Ach
(as well as other direct acting muscarinic agonists such as bethanechol)
Metoclopramide (dopamine antagoinst)......Tell me about it
- -blocks peripheral sterotonin receptors
- -anit emetic effect is blockade of NT in CTZ ****
- -possesses cholinergic effects
- -***Effectively antagonizes apomorphine induced emesis
Metoclopramide has what bioavailability?
50% due to extensive heapatic 1st pass metabolism
Procholoreperazine mesilate (emesis due to gastritis)
- contraindicated for animals with seizures (PHENOTHIAZINE DECREASES SEIZURE THRESHOLD)
- SIDE EFFECTS: sedation and hypotension bc blocks the A2 receptors
____are a2 adrenergic receptor agonists with antidopaminergic and weak antihistamine and anticholinergic properties
-broad spectrum antiemetics and can control emesis induced by most of the central causes other then labrinthine stimulation
side effects of anti-hitaminergics
-xerostomia (dryness of mouth)
what are anticholinergics, antidopaminergics (block dopamine receptors at the CTZ) and antihistminergics?
centrally acting antiemetics
What is a centrally acting emetic IN CATS. Most commonly used for sedation. Given at low doses for emetics compared to high dose for sedation.
Side effect = bradycardia
What happens with excessive doses of apomorphine
depresses CNS, particularly respiratory center and are contraindicated in animals with existing central depression
what route of apomorphine is preferred and why?
-conjunctival route is more preferred bc tablet can be removed once the animal vomits
______is a synthetic derivative of morphine, an opioid compound.
Given only in dogs bc it causes marked excitement in cats
An increase in ACH release =?
* will NOT increase gastric acid/pancreatic secretion
sensitizes smooth muscles for ACH action
The main NT that transmits impulses from CTZ and Mo?
what is my favorite country in the world?
WHEN should you NOT use cholinergic drugs?
- -when there is mechanical obstruction of the intestine or urinary tract
- -in animals with peritonitis
- -if intestinal wall is less variable
____adsorbs e. coli enterotoxin?
____ should NOT be administered concurrently with antacids bc it'll decrease gastric pH
_____binds with epidermal growth factor and forms mucous layer over the ulcer?
what does the drug slentrol do?
anti-obesity drug in dogs
Efferent signals that stimulate the emetic reflex descend to the stomach through which cranial nerve?
ocular effects of sulphapyridine can be avoided by using?
____ is the antacid choice in treatment in mild ruminal acidosis?
*** if severe systemic acidosis use sodium bicarb instead
____is a good adsorbant and antacid
***causes constipation too!
when do you administer antacids?
- -frequently, @ least 6 times a day
- -especially bw meals and night to prevent rebound acid hyper-secretion
___does not alter the serum gastric levels. it prevents rebound acid hypersensitivitys****
Adverse rxns of omeprazole?
-inhibits cytochrome p450 enzyme and interferes w/metabolism of certain drugs
**similar to cimetidine
PROTON PUMP INHIB
_____inhibits the H. K, ATPase proton pump on gastric parietal cells
-final step for sec. of gastric acid
side effects of H2 antagon. in rebound acid hypersecreation
h2 receptor antag. leads to decreased gastric acid secretions leading to increased plasma gastrin level which stimulates gastric parietal cells leading to GASTRIC ACID HYPERSECRETION
___inhibits hepatic cytochrome p450 (major metabolic problem) and interferes with metabolism of concurrently administered drugs
***useful in preventing tylenol toxicity (increased bioavailability of other drugs)
_____is 50% bioavailable for H2 receptor antag.
**absorption is NOT impaired by foal (advantage)
_____is the protype drug of reducing gastric secretion (h2 antag.)
***delays food absorption
the order of potency of gastric acid inhibitors (h2 receptor antag)
famotidine> ranitidine = nizatidine > cimetidine
of the h2 receptor antagonists _______has the longest duration of action
_____ leads to malabsorption of certain nutrients (vit. b12 and iron) bc change in pH
____is a dopamine antagonist
-increases GI motility peripherally
____ increases the tone of the lower esophagus sphincter (tightly closed)
-also penetrates blood brain barrier and *ANTAGONIZES CENTRAL DOPAMINE RECEPTORS
___are superior to anti-muscarinic agents for treatment of *NON-SPECIFIC RUNZZZ
_____is well absorbed from GIT and penetrates the blood brain barrier. Extreme care must be taken in cats bc OD causes excitability and goose-stepping gate.
____ is used as an anti-diarrheal in fowls
the combination of ____-______ ______ is dissolved in 20 parts h20. Its a demulcent and adsorbent which binds with bacteria and toxins
____acts primarily as adsorbent. Broad spectrum of activity and its rapid action....considered best choice for ER treatment of posinings.
____ is the most common bulk forming laxative used in equines
- increases movement of impactions caused by INGESTION OF SAND
-contraindicated in dehydrated animals
-3-12 hrs to work in mongastrics
-18hrs to work in ruminants
-poorly absorbed, but the amount absorbed can produce toxicity in animals with bad renal function
magnesium hydroxide (milk of mag), a saline (osmotic) purgative
repeated administration causes superpurgation in horses = NO REPEATED DOSES
newborn foals pass ______ , their first stool 24-36 hrs postpartum
substances that increase secretion of bile by the hepatocytes are called ______
____ stabilize the foam and are contra-indicated in frothy bloat
___ are clinically indicated for pruitis associated with increase in bile acids.
adverse effects are nausea, constipation, and steatorrhea