includes sympathetic parasympathetic nervous system
basic unit of nervous system
anatomy of a neuron stimulated by environmental changes or the activities of other cells
anatomy of a neuron that contains the nucleus and most of the metabolic machinery (mitochondria, ribosomes, ext
anatomy of a neuron that conducts nerve impulses (action potential) away from the soma
anatomy of a neuron that affects another neuron or effector (muscle, gland, etc.
a substance that is released from the axon terminal of a presynaptic neuron upon excitation and that travels across the synaptic cleft to either excite or inhibit the target cell. EX: acetylcholine, norepi, dopamine
membranes covering and protecting the brain and spinal cord. They consist of the pia mater, arachnoid membrane, and dura mater.
tough outermost layer of meninges
middle layer of the meninges
delicate innermost layer of the meninges
watery, clear fluid that acts as a cushion, protecting the brain and spinal cord from physical impact. this also serves as an accessory circulatory system for the central nervous system.
largest part of brain with 2 hemispheres. is seat of consciousness and the center of higher mental functions such as memory, learning, reasoning, judgment, intelligence, and emotions.
portion of brain lying beneath the cerebrum an dabove teh brainstem. It contains the thalamus, hypothalamus, and limbic system
part of the brain connecting the cerebral hemispheres with the spinal cord. consists of the mesencephalon (midbrain), pons, and medulla oblongata
portion of the brain connecting the pons and cerebellum with the cerebral hemispheres, also called the midbrain,
portion of the brain that controls motor coordination and eye movement. AKA midbrain
located between the midbrain and teh medulla oblongata, contains connections between the brain and the spinal cord.
lower portion of brainstem, connecting pons and spinal cord, contains major centers for control of respiratory, cardiac, and vasomotor activity.
portion of brain dorsal to pons plays important role in fine motor movement, posture, equilibrium, and muscle tone
part of brain responsible for speech, vision, personality, motor
part of brain responsible for balance and coordination,
system responsible for consciousness. A series of nervous tissues keeping the human sytem in a state of consciousness
RAS reticular activating system
carrying impulses toward the central nervous system. Sensory Nerves
carrying impulses away from the brain or spinal cord to the perifery. Motor nerves
area of the skin innervated by spinal nerves
involuntary component of peripheral nervous system
autonomic nervous system
any malfunction of damage of the peripheral nerves. results may include muscle weakness, loss of sensation, impaired reflexes, and internal organ malfunctions
a breathing pattern characterized by a period of apnea lasting 10 to 60 seconds followed by gradually increasing depth and frequency of respirations.
rapid deep respirations caused by severe metabolic and CNS problems.
hyperventilation caused by a lesion in the central nervous system, often characterized by rapid, deep, noisy respirations.
central neurogenic hyperventilation
poor respirations due to CNS damage, causing ineffective thoracic muscular coordination
breathing characterized by a prolonged inspiration unrelieved by expiration attempts seen in patients with damage to the upper part of the pons
posture associated with a lesion at or about the upper brainstem. the pt presents with the arms flexed, fists clenched and legs extended.
posture resulting from lesion in brainstem. Pt presents with stiff and extended extremities and retracted head.
a collective change in vital signs associated with increasing intracanial pressure:
- increased blood pressure
- decreased pulse
- irregular respirations
condition characterized by loss of memory and disorientation, associated with chronic alcohol intake and a diet deficient in thiamine
psychosis characterized by disorientation, muttering delierum, insomnia, delusions, and hallucinations.
condition with symptoms of painful extremities, bilateral wrist drop, bilateral foot drop, and pain on pressure over the long nerves.
caused by ischemic or hemorrhagic lesions to a portion of the brain resulting in damage or destruction of brain tissue.
fibrinolytic agent tissue plasminogen activator used in treating heart attack and certain occlusive strokes
3rd most common cause of death in middle aged and older patients.
2 types of strokes
occlusive and hemorragic
cerebral thrombus is a blood clot that gradually develops in and obstructs a cerebral artery. plaque builds up and clot develops in narrowed artery
solid, liquid, or gaseous mass carried to blood vessel from a remote site. occure suddenly and often with severe headace.
usually intracerebral (with the brain)or in space around outer surface of brain ( subarachnoid). sudden, severe headache.
most intracranial hemmorhages occu in the ____ patient when small tissue ruptures
predisposing factors that may contribute to stroke