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Ecology is derived from 2 Greek words, name them and what they stand for.
- Oikos = House or environment
- Logos = study or knowledge
What is ecology?
The scientific study of the relationships or (interactions) of organisms to their environments
What are the environmental Aspects of ecology?
Abiotic, and biotic.
What are abiotic factors?
Chemical, Physical things.
What are Biotic factors?
What are the Level of organization in ecoogy?
- Soil, vegetation, climate e.g. coniferous forest, desert
What is a Population?
- A group of individuals of the same species living in a particular place
- Depends on the species involved and the limits of the space occupied
What is a Community?
All of the individuals of all species living in a particular place
What is an Ecosystem?
All of the individuals of all species (i.e. community) and non-living environment (abiotic) factors in a particular area
Environmental Problems and the Tyranny of Small Decisions
- A. Public Decisions: Ideal World vs. Real World
- B. Hypothetical Lake Scenario
- C. Environmental Problems
- Solid waster
- Toxic chemicals
- Species extinction
- Atmosphere ozone depletion
- Climate change
- Human population growth
Truth, Knowledge, Wisdom and Understanding. Who is responsible for this?
Scientific truth concerns physical reality�objective reality�the material world...which is?
the part of the world that we can see, touch, smell.
- what we think we know about the truth.
- Knowledge is always imperfect, always subject to revision and improvement.
what are some thing that we think we know about the truth?
- Understand is the ability to apply knowledge in guiding our actions.
- Basic scientists seek knowledge while applied scientists seek understanding.
Wisdom is the realization that truth and knowledge are ?
- not necessarily the same thing
- Goal is understanding
What are the 6 most abundant elements?
H, He, O, N, C, Ne
Of what are living things composed and what is the percent by mass?
- 96-99% of living things by mass are
- H, C, O, N
What is the earth made of?
Earth is made of O, Fe, Si, Mg, Al
What distinguishes living from non-living things?
- Living things are made of stuff stars are made of
- Living things use energy to counteract physical forces
Living Things vs. Non-Living Things: Separate with Two Qualifications. Name them.
- Physical environment both contains life and provides solution to problems
- Living things both depend on and affect the physical environment
Give some general statements about water.
- Organisms are mostly made of water
- Plant water
- Live processes take place in water
Water is the only subst on earth that is?
Thermal Properties of water?
High heat capacity, thermal expansion
What is Heat Capacity ?
- the ability of a substance to gain or lose heat with out changing temperature
- Water higher capacity
- Water changes temperate slowly
- Aquatic environments change temp slowly as opposed to land
What is Thermal Expansion?
- (Changes in Density)
- Density increases as temperature decreases
When is water most dense?
- 4 degrees C is more dense then100 degC (density decreases)
- 4 degrees C is more dense then 0 degC (density decreases)
Density ________ as temp decreases?
What is the quick and dirty way to figure out something from F to C?
Double it and add 30.
Buoyancy and Viscosity water is how many more times dense then air?
Water is 800 times more dense then air
What are the good and bad things about bouancy?
- Good = Buoyant - float
- Bad = viscous � takes more energy to move in water then air
Water dissolves most substances and more of those substances then any other substances why?
Polar ? dissolves lots of things
Amount of Salt water - Dissolved minerals?
About 3.4% dissolved minerals
Name the dissolved minerals in salt water
Fresh water � dissolved minerals?
Salt water is how many more times saltier then fresh water?
Name the dissolved minerals in fresh water
- HCO3 � bicarbonate
- SO4- sulfate
Concentration of Hydrogen Ions (pH), what is the scale, whats Acidic and whats basic?
- It goes from 1-14
- 1 = Acidic
- 1 = basic
- [H+] = acidic
- [OH-] = basic
H+ what are the good and the bad thing?
- Bad = denatures enzymes/proteins
- Good = dissolves minerals (solid +rock)
What is the normal range of pH for living things?
5.0-9.5 being the normal range for living things
Acid Rain comes from what?
- Gas from the atmosphere (CO2)
- CO2 ?H2CO3?H+ + HCO3
- Carbonic Acid and bicarbonate
Rain is naturally acidic from?
- the CO2 in the atmosphere <7
- H+ + CaCO3 ? Ca++ + HCO3-
Describe UV light?
- Can cause DNA damage
- Too much energy to be used for living things
What is Infrared?
Heat. Not enough energy for photosynthesis
What is Visible light?
Photosyntheticaly active region of light (ROYGBIV)
Transparency of water to visible light is?
300feet in clear areas
There is a compensation depth
Rate of photosynthesis (P) = Rate of Respiration (R)
In Euphotic what is the ratio of photosynthesis to rate of respiration?
What is true about the compensation depth?
Rates of photosynthesis = rate of respiration
Aphotic what is the ratio of photosynthesis to rate of respiration?
Visible Light + chlorophyll + 6H2O + 6CO2 ? C6H12O6 + 6O2
List some Autotrophs
- - Plants, bacteria, Protists (algae)
List some other names for C6H12O6
- - Glucose, Sugar, Food, Stored energy, Carbohydrates, Starch
C6H12O6 + O2 ? H2O + CO2 + ATP
EVERYBODY DOES THIS - - Plants & Animals!
Rules in ecology
- 1. Ecology is a science
- 2. Understanding complexity requires models
- �verbal (described in words of what you are modeling)
- Mathematical models (Quantative)
- 3. There are hierarchies of explanations
- 4. Both genes and environment are important
- 5. Ecology is only understandable in the light of evolution
- 6. Chance is important
- Genetic drift
- Gene flow
- Ecological opportunity
- 7. Nothing happens for the good of the species, group selection is bunk.
- What is the macronutrient: nitrogens (NO3- & NH4+) function?
- protein, nucleic acids
What is the macronutrient: phosphorus (PO4-3) function?
nucleic acids, ATP, phospholipids, bone
What is the macronutrient: potassium (K+) function?
solute in animal cells for osmotic balance
What is the macronutrient: magnesium (Mg+2) function?
chlorophyll, enzyme function
What is the macronutrient: What is the macronutrient: sulfur (SO4-2)?
What is the macronutrient: calcium (Ca+2) function?
cell walls, bone, cell permeability
In plants, the following elements function mainly as enzyme co-factors (non-protein helpers in enzymatic reactions):
*Iron, *Boron, *Zinc, *Manganese, *Chlorine, *Molybdenum, *Copper & Nickel
Animals also need most of the above elements (those marked with an asterisk) as well as the following in trace amounts:
- *Iron, *Boron, *Zinc, *Manganese, *Chlorine, *Molybdenum, *Copper & Nickel
- Sodium, Chromium, Cobalt, Fluorine, Iodine, Selenium, Silicon, Tin, Vanadium
How much CO2 gas is present in the atmosphere?
What is the carbon availability for a plant at 100% humidity in the cell?
Water move out and carbon moves in thought the stomata.
What is the carbon availability for a pant when outside humidity is < 100% outside the cell?
1g of C fixed. 500g of water leave the plant.
How much CO2 is available in aquatic environments?
What does CO2 form in the water?
- Carbonic acid
- CO2 + H2CO3 goes to H+ and HCO3-
What is the source of CO2 photosynthesis for aquatic plants?
What is the oxygen availability in the atmosphere?
What is the oxygen availability in aquatic environments?
What does it mean if there is only 1% oxygen available for aquatic environments?
That its is a pontential limitant
What does anocix mean?
What is a macronutrient?
A nutrient that is needed in large quantity
There are 6 macronutrients that for what percent of living things?
What are micronutrients?�
They are nutrients that are need in small amounts compared to macronutrients.
In reguads to UV radiation, what absorbs most of this dangerous radiation?
O3 � ozone
What destroys the ozone layer?
What does the atmosphere act as?
A blanket that warms the earth
What could cause a change in the climate?
- Burning of fossil fuels
- Cutting down trees
Area under the curve is energy amount available.
- UV light � O3 absorbs most dangerous ones in the ozone
- CFC�s destroy the ozone
Atmosphere acts as a blanket that warms the earth
- Bad thing? � Climate change
- CO2 ? fossil fuels being burnt ? added to the atmosphere
- Cutting down trees
Visible light decreases at sea level then at the edge of the atmosphere and the amount of light is?
changed but not qualitative change
Chlorophyll doesn�t use green wavelength it
Fate of incoming solar radiation
2.00 cal/ cm^2 / min = solar constant
The amount of energy the sun is putting out that is received by the earth
47.5% direct sunlight or reflected sunlight
- .475(200) = 0.95 cal/cm^2 / min = avg piece of earth on a given day
- 1sq m of earth has required energy for 3-4 people
Is all that energy used for photosynthesis ( the direct or reflected sunlight 47.5%)? No. Not all in that region. What does it depend on?
- Composition of atmosphere (pollution)
- Season (angle of sun)
- Time of day
Which slope gets more sun?
The slope on the north side... that faces south gets more sun
- Transfer of electromagnetic radiation or heat transfer between objects not in physical contact
- We are losing heat to the env
Transfer of heat between objects in close physical contact.
- Transfer of heat by the movement of a fluid over surfaces (conduction)
What is absolute 0?
- 0 degrees k
- Or -273.15 degrees C
What is a wind chill?
When the wind blows away the boundary layer, you conduct heat more rapidly.
At 22deg C it takes how many caories to convert 1g of iquid water to gaseous water?
- � heated or cooled to the same temp as the body
- Movement of fluid that destroys the boundary layer so you can conduct heat more rapidly
- Heat lost due to the vaporization of water
- At 22 deg C take 584 cal to convert 1g of liquid to h2o to gaseous h2o
- Cool down when you sweat and it take heat with it
Sit in front of a fan to?
destroy boundary layer and will water will evaporate
Change in heat content of an organism =
- heat produced by metabolism of the animal.
- � evap
- +- radiation
- +- convection
- Tenv Torg � depends on this
Environmental variation includes?
- Space & time
- Aquatic and terrestrial environments
Conditions are what?
- Any non-depeletedtable component of the environment that may affect organisms
- Not consumed
- Not used up
- = Temperature
Resources are what?
- Any depletable component of the environment that may affect organism
- Plants ? co2, light
assimilated (incorporation into them) used up
Genetically determined characteristic that increases the growth, survival, and or reproduction of an individual or a population of individuals
What is the mechanism of adaptation?
Mechanism = natural selection
Describe: Adapt (v.) evolution
- We cannot adapt, out species can. Our offspring can
- Populations can adapt. Individuals CAN�T adapt.
The problem of distribution
- Why individuals of a particular species are present in some places and absent in others?
- What must an individual do to be able to live in a new habitat or place?
Analysis of the problems of distrubution
- Must possess the physiological potential to survive, grow and reproduce - genetics (cope with abiotic environment)
- Must have ecological opportunity to become established � interactions with other organism must be benign (not harmful)
- Must have physical access to the area - be able to get there
A species may be absent from a particular area because of...
Limiting factors & limits of tolerance
What are Limiting Factors?
Any attribute of the physical environment which affects the survival, growth or reproduction of an individual or a population of individuals
B. Limits of Tolerance Concept
- 1. Statement of Concept
- For any abiotic factor there is typically a min, max and an optimum value for an individual or population
- 2. Tolerance Curve
being widely tolerant
On a tolerance curve the outer most, the low and the high for the abiotic factor (temp)are considered?
The zone of intolerance
On the tolerance curve, the zone next to the zone of intoleence for abiotic factors is the ?
Zone of physiological stress.
The zone on the tolerance curve that is the optimum is considered?
The zone of optimm
What is generally on the Y axis of the graph?
What determines success?
Evolution and genetics
4. Shapes of Tolerance Curves (Principle of Allocation)
A Jack of all trades is a master of none. The stenotypic graph, the narrow one is the master, and the broad eurytpic one is Jack.
- Different species have different ranges of tolerance
- Since physical environments vary geographically, it explains how species vary geographically � communities vary geographically
- Organisms/species has wide ranges of tolerance for so factors and narrow ranges of tolerance for others
- Species may demonstrate different ranges of tolerance for the same factor at different times in its life
- E.G. Newt
- Eggs (water)
- Larva (gilled)
- Juvenile (terrestrial)
- Adult (water)
- Species with wide ranges of tolerance or many factors tend to be widely distributed geographically
2. Factor Interaction
- When Abiotic Factors is not optimum the range of tolerance to other factors may be narrower
- Ranges of tolerance are done in lab experiments
- E.G. Turf Grass
- High precipitation
- Lots of soil water
- Temp cool not warm
- Range of temp is higher because they have plenty of water.
- Less precipitation
- Lower amount of water in soil
- Temp mild to hot
- Range of temp lower because not much water
D. Important Abiotic Factors (See Lecture Outline 2 and Chapters 6 & 7 of Text and �Questions For Further Thought and Discussion� � SET 2 & SET 3)
- 1. Temperature
- 2. Water
- 3. Light
- 4. Nutrients
- Ability to keep ones internal environment constants in spite of a changing external environment
- All species have this ability o some extent
- Rid excess h2o
- Birds and mammals control body temp
- Mammals eat to maintain body temp
- Cant maintain body temp � avoid harsh conditions
When abiotic conditions change: Avoidance
- A. behavior
- Simple behaviors �turtle basking�
Resistant life history stage
- Annual plants right now � seeds
- Sponges � gennuels
- Insects � eggs/pupae
hibernation, aestivation, torpor
For inactivity and hibernation what is important to do?
- Find a protected location
- Lower body temperature (above 0deg C)
- Torpid � torpor
- Lower body temp
What does it mean to become torpid?
Lower body temp
A Slower metabolism requires?
less of everything
Inactivity/hibernation. Has what kind of basis?
Seasonal basis � below ground � under frost level
- In the summer they have to eat every 20 minutes � high metabolism
- Don�t eat at night
- Become torpid
Explain the Shrew
Carnivore � mammal � eat anything/anyone
Hibernation ? Bears?
- Lower body temp a little
- Give birth while hibernating
- 2 way movement performed regularly
- Summer home � winter break and back
- Birds, insects, fish, whales, bats � ability to become torpid
Environment induced phenotypic variation
Morphology � lab exercise 2 � explains phenotypic plasticity
- Sun leaves
- Shorter, narrower thick?
- Shade leaves
- Longer, wider
- Both have equal mass. Genetically identical. Different phenotypes
Part of phenotype.
- A physiological adjustment by an individual in response to abiotic factors in the environment
- Adjust physiology � enzymes change �
- Fish � range of tolerance. Cold h2o
- Average � mean median � comparative
- Extreme example
- Once a month stuff is dumped into the creek
6. Daily Fluctuations
- Wind speed
- House plant � doesn�t experience extreme variation � and they don�t do well
F. Ecological Indicators
- Species that tells us something about the abiotic environment
- Plants � cant move
Wet lands � marsh, swamp, bog
- They are de-lineated � marked by out wetlands are surveyed
- Indicator plants
- Obligative wet land plants
- Require water or saturated soil � cattails
- Facultative � both environments
� is a one way movement of an individual away from its home site
1. Presaturation Dispersal
- (= Innate) Dispersal
- Genetically determined tendency to move away from ones parents
2. Saturation dispersal
- (= Environmental) Dispersal
- Movement of an individual from crowded to uncrowded conditions
Animals can swim fly etc. to
Plant are physiologically designed to
Most animals have no structural adaptations for dispersal, while plants do
Cashe seeds � acorns - squirrels
2. to Disperse or Not
- There is a continuum. Ones who can disperse and ones who can�t.
- Running away from competition
- Fugatative species = always on the run
Rewards of not dispersing
Parents/home � nice place to live
Risks of not dispersing
- Competition with relatives
- Mate with relatives
- Inbreeding or no breeding
Rewards of dispersing
- Avoid competition with relatives
- Avoid inbreeding
- Colonize a new un-crowded area
- Cope with changing environment
Risks of dispersing
� behavioral mechanism that locates individuals in a favorable environment
Distribution for habitat selection..why? � 2 questions
Proximate vs. Ultimate Perspectives
- Immediate physical or physiological cause
- E.g. burning your hand on the stove, the response is immediate � no brain activity involved
- Evolutionary reasons
- Survival, growth, reproduction
Proximate reasons animal may choose to live somewhere
- � food
- Ultimate answer � where food usually is
� genetics (instinct)
� learned (environment)
What is the �preferred habitat� of this species the pied flycatcher?
Does �habitat preference� seem to be influenced by a hatchling�s early experience?
� learning I not relevant... seek decidiius Forrest... more there. (genetic nature)
Which influence, �nature or nurture�, appears to be most important in selecting a habitat for the Pied Flycatcher?
Nature - genetics
Given all of this, why would a Pied Flycatcher nest in a coniferous forest?
Live in a place it doesn�t prefer � competition � highly genetically influenced
A. Types of Behavior � both observable and measurable � also evolve
- Habitat selection
- Migration, hibernation, dispersal
- Individual maintenance activities (e.g., preening, sleeping, bathing, etc.)
- Predator-prey, parasite-host, etc.
- Mating behavior
- Parental behavior
- Agonistic behavior
- "Altruistic" behavior
B. Stereotypical Behavior definition
- � any behavior that is relatively fixed or invariable
- High genetic component
What are releasers?
- They could be biotic or abiotic.
- Elected (caused) by environmental attributes called releasers (causes behavior to occur)
- Fight or flight
- Genetically determined
- Proximate � his scream
- Ultimate - Grow and reproduce
- Running away is the critical choices
Animal must be properly motivated � internal sate of the animal
Advantage of stereotypical behavior
Allows animals to response to appropriately to environments stimuli most of the time
- Learning- modification of behavior due to experience
- Long lived individuals
Is a bird�s song inherited or learned? Yes!
- Template of their song in their brain
- They recognize its song with the template
- Learning is involved by listening to other individuals of the same species (father)
- Genetics + learning = both important
Genes determine the limits with in which a behavior can be?
Experience (learning) determines the precise character of the
1. Nature (stereotyped behavior) vs. nurture (learned behavior)
2. Anthropomorphism (human form)
- Attributing human characteristics to non human animals
- Giving human characteristics to non human animals.
fact is simply an
observation of nature; facts represent the data of the world.
A hypothesis is a
testable statement accounting for a fact or set of facts.
A theory is
a well-supported or well-tested hypothesis or set of hypotheses.
1. Five Major Components (Hypotheses) of Darwinism: Description and Evidence
The five mutually compatible components (or sets of hypotheses) are: 1) Perpetual Change; 2) Common Descent; 3) Multiplication of Species; 4) Gradualism; and 5) Natural Selection.
- Darwinism Revised (Neo-Darwinism): The Synthesis of Darwinism and Genetics
- Gergor Mendel is the only one who understood genetics. Darwin wasn�t wrong, just didn�t know or understand Gregor's theories
B. Evolution Defined
- A change in the frequency of alleles in a gene pool from one generation to the next
- Individuals do not evolve or adapt
- Populations adapt
D. Population Genetics: Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium
Equation p^2 + 2pq + q2 = 1
Do the cross for Hardy Weinberg
Conditions for Hardy Weinberg
- � Population should be large (effects of change are not significant)
- � Mating is random
- � Population is closed (no immigration or emigration)
- � No mutations
- � Everyone survives & reproduces equally
When you have different outcomes that are not hardy Weinberg (30, 50, 20) what does it mean?
- Some or one of the conditions are not met
- Evolution - change
Inheritable change in the genetic material � DNA
What are the common mutations?
- Point mutation
- Nucleotide mmutation
- Random � unpredictable
- Ultimate source of new alleles (variation)
- Rates are low/variable
- Typically changes for the worse
B. Gene Flow
- Introduction of alleles into a population by the immigration of individuals carrying alleles from a neighboring population
- Changing allele frequency
Characteristics of gene flow?
- Common (dispersal)
- Gene flow may occur passively or actively.
Results of gene flow?
- Greater the distance between populations of the same species the greater the difference between them
- Individuals of the same species often show a regular gradient of variation across a geographical area � Cline
Example of gene flow?
- Song sparrow (LBB�s)
- California � small streaked
- Alaska � large plain
- Cost of America there is gene flow among neighbors
- Little sparrows loses heat faster... larger ones have a larger SA/V ration and don�t lose heat as quick
C. Genetic Drift
Typically � loss of alleles due entirely to chance
Genetic drift is most important to who?
- Most important in small populations
- Small populations widely separated � threatened and endangered.
- E.g. Mi lottery... 1/ga-billion chance of winning
- Chance is most important in small populations
Result of genetic drift:
- Loss of alleles � loss of variation
- Founder effect - unique frequency of allele that aeries in a population derived from a few individuals from a main populations
What is an example of the founder effect?
- Darwin�s finches
- 13 different species
- Got there by chance or bad luck
What is Natural Selection?
The non random differential survival and differential reproduction of genotypes from 1 generation to the next
What is natural selection expressed as?
Expressed as differential survival and differential reproduction
- � many genes. Effected by more then 1 gene.
- Get a normal distribution
- � agent or process or phenomena...that causes a change in the allele frequency
- Abiotic + biotic = selected for vs. selected against
- Against = not quite as well
- Reproduce a little less for the �for�
� selection which tends to favor phenotypes at one extreme or the next � a shift to the right... If the selected against its most of the curve and selected for is less, it will move to make the curve better for the �for�
b. Stabilizing Selection
- � selection which tends to favor the average phenotype over the extremes in either direction
- Evolution is the same
- Range decreases
- avg stays the same
- If its works, don�t fix it
� selection which tends to favor the phenotypes at both extremes relative to the AVG, phenotype � bimodal � could lead to two different species
Two �Special Variations� of Natural Selection
Kin selection and altruism.
Kin Selection (and Apparent Altruism)
� selection which tends to favor phenotypes that demonstrates behavior that benefits related individuals
� self sacrifice
Among family members altruism is
Pseudo kin � false kin?
- Adopted, close friends, step family.
- How can we explain selfless behavior?
� selection which favors phenotypes that demonstrate behavior that benefits the population at the expense of the individual � unless the group has the same genes as you
� really being nice to someone you have feelings for and car about
- � selection which favors the phenotype that are attractive to the opposite sex
- Heterosexual � survival and reproduce
- Body size
- Lack of parasites
- The female chooses the mate � always
� ability to survive and reproduce
Altruism among non humans?
- Eastern bluebirds � �helpers at the nest�
- Fledgling that sticks around
- Helps to raise next generation
- Selfish � helps to get genes into the next population
A. Vertical Evolution �
phyletic transformation or gradualist. Time A� ? A� ? A�� ? B
C. Convergent Evolution
- � solved the problem for life in a similar way with no common descent
- Appearance of similar adaptations in unrelated and originally dissimilar species
- A and B -> A� and B�
- Mammals � marsupials � new Zealand & Australia
- No organs develops between mother and baby
- It goes outside the mother and into her pouch and drinks milk
- Concurrent or see saw change in 2 or more interaction populations
- Predator and prey
- Host and parasite
- Selective force = interaction
Diversity of life � vertical evolution � divergent evolution - extinction
� complete disappearance of all individuals of a species from the planet
Extinction is forever =
� complete disappearance of a species from a particular place � wolverines are extinct in MI
Direct effect of extinction
Loss of diversity
Indirect effect of extinction
- Interpret of fossil records
- Gap (extinction) hard to determine things
- Intermediate or transitional species
Archaeopteryx � ancient wing = transitional
- Tiktaalik � fish � a � pod = yes
- Fish with legs. Fish with neck.
- Negative force = how could it be positive?
- New ecological opportunity
- Extinction of dinosaurs allowed for us
- Survivors = positive
Patterns of Extinctions: Background (= Normal) Extinctions
- �Normal� extinctions
Causes of Mass Extinctions
- Higher rate of extinction
- Increase the number of families per million of years
What cusses mass extinction?
- Dinosaurs? � Large body impact with the earth � asteroid or comet
- Moon separated from the earth itself and became moon
- Destroy atmosphere � block sun
- Stop photosynthesis
- 96% of species extinct�large body impact too? Not sure
- Gradual environmental changes could cause a mass extinction � millions of years
Current Threats to Species: The Sixth Mass Extinction?
Need data for a few million years