� any behavior that is relatively fixed or invariable
High genetic component
What are releasers?
They could be biotic or abiotic.
Elected (caused) by environmental attributes called releasers (causes behavior to occur)
Fight or flight
Proximate � his scream
Ultimate - Grow and reproduce
Running away is the critical choices
Animal must be properly motivated � internal sate of the animal
Advantage of stereotypical behavior
Allows animals to response to appropriately to environments stimuli most of the time
Learning- modification of behavior due to experience
Long lived individuals
Is a bird�s song inherited or learned? Yes!
Template of their song in their brain
They recognize its song with the template
Learning is involved by listening to other individuals of the same species (father)
Genetics + learning = both important
Genes determine the limits with in which a behavior can be?
Experience (learning) determines the precise character of the
1. Nature (stereotyped behavior) vs. nurture (learned behavior)
2. Anthropomorphism (human form)
Attributing human characteristics to non human animals
Giving human characteristics to non human animals.
fact is simply an
observation of nature; facts represent the data of the world.
A hypothesis is a
testable statement accounting for a fact or set of facts.
A theory is
a well-supported or well-tested hypothesis or set of hypotheses.
1. Five Major Components (Hypotheses) of Darwinism: Description and Evidence
The five mutually compatible components (or sets of hypotheses) are: 1) Perpetual Change; 2) Common Descent; 3) Multiplication of Species; 4) Gradualism; and 5) Natural Selection.
Darwinism Revised (Neo-Darwinism): The Synthesis of Darwinism and Genetics
Gergor Mendel is the only one who understood genetics. Darwin wasn�t wrong, just didn�t know or understand Gregor's theories
B. Evolution Defined
A change in the frequency of alleles in a gene pool from one generation to the next
Individuals do not evolve or adapt
D. Population Genetics: Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium
Equation p^2 + 2pq + q2 = 1
frequency of A
frequency of a
Do the cross for Hardy Weinberg
AA = 30%
Aa = 50%
aa = 20%
Conditions for Hardy Weinberg
� Population should be large (effects of change are not significant)
� Mating is random
� Population is closed (no immigration or emigration)
� No mutations
� Everyone survives & reproduces equally
When you have different outcomes that are not hardy Weinberg (30, 50, 20) what does it mean?
Some or one of the conditions are not met
Evolution - change
Inheritable change in the genetic material � DNA
What are the common mutations?
Random � unpredictable
Ultimate source of new alleles (variation)
Rates are low/variable
Typically changes for the worse
B. Gene Flow
Introduction of alleles into a population by the immigration of individuals carrying alleles from a neighboring population
Changing allele frequency
Characteristics of gene flow?
Gene flow may occur passively or actively.
Results of gene flow?
Greater the distance between populations of the same species the greater the difference between them
Individuals of the same species often show a regular gradient of variation across a geographical area � Cline
Example of gene flow?
Song sparrow (LBB�s)
California � small streaked
Alaska � large plain
Cost of America there is gene flow among neighbors
Little sparrows loses heat faster... larger ones have a larger SA/V ration and don�t lose heat as quick
C. Genetic Drift
Typically � loss of alleles due entirely to chance
Genetic drift is most important to who?
Most important in small populations
Small populations widely separated � threatened and endangered.
E.g. Mi lottery... 1/ga-billion chance of winning
Chance is most important in small populations
Result of genetic drift:
Loss of alleles � loss of variation
Founder effect - unique frequency of allele that aeries in a population derived from a few individuals from a main populations
What is an example of the founder effect?
13 different species
Got there by chance or bad luck
What is Natural Selection?
The non random differential survival and differential reproduction of genotypes from 1 generation to the next
What is natural selection expressed as?
Expressed as differential survival and differential reproduction
� many genes. Effected by more then 1 gene.
Get a normal distribution
� agent or process or phenomena...that causes a change in the allele frequency
Abiotic + biotic = selected for vs. selected against
Against = not quite as well
Reproduce a little less for the �for�
� selection which tends to favor phenotypes at one extreme or the next � a shift to the right... If the selected against its most of the curve and selected for is less, it will move to make the curve better for the �for�
b. Stabilizing Selection
� selection which tends to favor the average phenotype over the extremes in either direction
Evolution is the same
avg stays the same
If its works, don�t fix it
� selection which tends to favor the phenotypes at both extremes relative to the AVG, phenotype � bimodal � could lead to two different species
Two �Special Variations� of Natural Selection
Kin selection and altruism.
Kin Selection (and Apparent Altruism)
� selection which tends to favor phenotypes that demonstrates behavior that benefits related individuals
� self sacrifice
Among family members altruism is
Pseudo kin � false kin?
Adopted, close friends, step family.
How can we explain selfless behavior?
� selection which favors phenotypes that demonstrate behavior that benefits the population at the expense of the individual � unless the group has the same genes as you
� really being nice to someone you have feelings for and car about
� selection which favors the phenotype that are attractive to the opposite sex
Heterosexual � survival and reproduce
Lack of parasites
The female chooses the mate � always
� ability to survive and reproduce
Altruism among non humans?
Eastern bluebirds � �helpers at the nest�
Fledgling that sticks around
Helps to raise next generation
Selfish � helps to get genes into the next population
A. Vertical Evolution �
phyletic transformation or gradualist. Time A� ? A� ? A�� ? B
B. Divergent Evolution
C. Convergent Evolution
� solved the problem for life in a similar way with no common descent
Appearance of similar adaptations in unrelated and originally dissimilar species
A and B -> A� and B�
Mammals � marsupials � new Zealand & Australia
No organs develops between mother and baby
It goes outside the mother and into her pouch and drinks milk
Concurrent or see saw change in 2 or more interaction populations
Predator and prey
Host and parasite
Selective force = interaction
Diversity of life � vertical evolution � divergent evolution - extinction
� complete disappearance of all individuals of a species from the planet
Extinction is forever =
� complete disappearance of a species from a particular place � wolverines are extinct in MI
Direct effect of extinction
Loss of diversity
Indirect effect of extinction
Interpret of fossil records
Gap (extinction) hard to determine things
Intermediate or transitional species
Archaeopteryx � ancient wing = transitional
Tiktaalik � fish � a � pod = yes
Fish with legs. Fish with neck.
Negative force = how could it be positive?
New ecological opportunity
Extinction of dinosaurs allowed for us
Survivors = positive
Patterns of Extinctions: Background (= Normal) Extinctions
Causes of Mass Extinctions
Higher rate of extinction
Increase the number of families per million of years
What cusses mass extinction?
Dinosaurs? � Large body impact with the earth � asteroid or comet
Moon separated from the earth itself and became moon
Destroy atmosphere � block sun
96% of species extinct�large body impact too? Not sure
Gradual environmental changes could cause a mass extinction � millions of years
Current Threats to Species: The Sixth Mass Extinction?