exam1.txt

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exam1.txt
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Ecology first third course
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Ecology
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  1. Ecology is derived from 2 Greek words, name them and what they stand for.
    • Oikos = House or environment
    • Logos = study or knowledge
  2. What is ecology?
    The scientific study of the relationships or (interactions) of organisms to their environments
  3. What are the environmental Aspects of ecology?
    Abiotic, and biotic.
  4. What are abiotic factors?
    Chemical, Physical things.
  5. What are Biotic factors?
    Living things
  6. What are the Level of organization in ecoogy?
    • Planet
    • Biosphere
    • Biomes
    • Soil, vegetation, climate e.g. coniferous forest, desert
    • Landscapes
    • Ecosystems
    • Communities
    • Populations
    • Individuals
    • Organs
    • Tissues
    • Cells
    • Organelles
    • Macromolecules
  7. What is a Population?
    • A group of individuals of the same species living in a particular place
    • Vague
    • Depends on the species involved and the limits of the space occupied
  8. What is a Community?
    All of the individuals of all species living in a particular place
  9. What is an Ecosystem?
    All of the individuals of all species (i.e. community) and non-living environment (abiotic) factors in a particular area
  10. Environmental Problems and the Tyranny of Small Decisions
    • A. Public Decisions: Ideal World vs. Real World
    • B. Hypothetical Lake Scenario
    • C. Environmental Problems
    • Solid waster
    • Toxic chemicals
    • Species extinction
    • Atmosphere ozone depletion
    • Climate change
    • Human population growth
  11. Truth, Knowledge, Wisdom and Understanding. Who is responsible for this?
    scientists
  12. Truth is?
    what is
  13. Scientific truth concerns physical reality�objective reality�the material world...which is?
    the part of the world that we can see, touch, smell.
  14. Knowledge is?
    • what we think we know about the truth.
    • Knowledge is always imperfect, always subject to revision and improvement.
  15. what are some thing that we think we know about the truth?
    • Understand is the ability to apply knowledge in guiding our actions.
    • Basic scientists seek knowledge while applied scientists seek understanding.
  16. Wisdom is the realization that truth and knowledge are ?
    • not necessarily the same thing
    • Goal is understanding
  17. What are the 6 most abundant elements?
    H, He, O, N, C, Ne
  18. Of what are living things composed and what is the percent by mass?
    • 96-99% of living things by mass are
    • H, C, O, N
  19. What is the earth made of?
    Earth is made of O, Fe, Si, Mg, Al
  20. What distinguishes living from non-living things?
    • Living things are made of stuff stars are made of
    • Living things use energy to counteract physical forces
  21. Living Things vs. Non-Living Things: Separate with Two Qualifications. Name them.
    • Physical environment both contains life and provides solution to problems
    • Living things both depend on and affect the physical environment
  22. Give some general statements about water.
    • Organisms are mostly made of water
    • Plant water
    • Live processes take place in water
  23. Water is the only subst on earth that is?
    Common
  24. Thermal Properties of water?
    High heat capacity, thermal expansion
  25. What is Heat Capacity ?
    • the ability of a substance to gain or lose heat with out changing temperature
    • Water higher capacity
    • Water changes temperate slowly
    • Aquatic environments change temp slowly as opposed to land
  26. What is Thermal Expansion?
    • (Changes in Density)
    • Density increases as temperature decreases
  27. When is water most dense?
    • 4 degrees C is more dense then100 degC (density decreases)
    • 4 degrees C is more dense then 0 degC (density decreases)
  28. Density ________ as temp decreases?
    Increases
  29. What is the quick and dirty way to figure out something from F to C?
    Double it and add 30.
  30. Buoyancy and Viscosity water is how many more times dense then air?
    Water is 800 times more dense then air
  31. What are the good and bad things about bouancy?
    • Good = Buoyant - float
    • Bad = viscous � takes more energy to move in water then air
  32. Water dissolves most substances and more of those substances then any other substances why?
    Polar ? dissolves lots of things
  33. Amount of Salt water - Dissolved minerals?
    About 3.4% dissolved minerals
  34. Name the dissolved minerals in salt water
    • Na+
    • Cl-
    • Mg++
    • SO4- Sulfate
  35. Fresh water � dissolved minerals?
    About 0.01-0.02%
  36. Salt water is how many more times saltier then fresh water?
    300x
  37. Name the dissolved minerals in fresh water
    • Ca++
    • HCO3 � bicarbonate
    • SO4- sulfate
  38. Concentration of Hydrogen Ions (pH), what is the scale, whats Acidic and whats basic?
    • It goes from 1-14
    • 1 = Acidic
    • 1 = basic
    • [H+] = acidic
    • [OH-] = basic
  39. H+ what are the good and the bad thing?
    • Bad = denatures enzymes/proteins
    • Good = dissolves minerals (solid +rock)
  40. What is the normal range of pH for living things?
    5.0-9.5 being the normal range for living things
  41. Acid Rain comes from what?
    • Gas from the atmosphere (CO2)
    • CO2 ?H2CO3?H+ + HCO3
    • Carbonic Acid and bicarbonate
  42. Rain is naturally acidic from?
    • the CO2 in the atmosphere <7
    • H+ + CaCO3 ? Ca++ + HCO3-
  43. Describe UV light?
    • shortest
    • Can cause DNA damage
    • Too much energy to be used for living things
  44. What is Infrared?
    Heat. Not enough energy for photosynthesis
  45. What is Visible light?
    Photosyntheticaly active region of light (ROYGBIV)
  46. Transparency of water to visible light is?
    300feet in clear areas
  47. There is a compensation depth
    Rate of photosynthesis (P) = Rate of Respiration (R)
  48. In Euphotic what is the ratio of photosynthesis to rate of respiration?
    P>R
  49. What is true about the compensation depth?
    Rates of photosynthesis = rate of respiration
  50. Aphotic what is the ratio of photosynthesis to rate of respiration?
    P
  51. Photosynthesis
    Visible Light + chlorophyll + 6H2O + 6CO2 ? C6H12O6 + 6O2
  52. List some Autotrophs
    - - Plants, bacteria, Protists (algae)
  53. List some other names for C6H12O6
    - - Glucose, Sugar, Food, Stored energy, Carbohydrates, Starch
  54. Respiration
    C6H12O6 + O2 ? H2O + CO2 + ATP
  55. RESPIRATION =
    EVERYBODY DOES THIS - - Plants & Animals!
  56. Rules in ecology
    • 1. Ecology is a science
    • 2. Understanding complexity requires models
    • �verbal (described in words of what you are modeling)
    • Mathematical models (Quantative)
    • 3. There are hierarchies of explanations
    • 4. Both genes and environment are important
    • 5. Ecology is only understandable in the light of evolution
    • 6. Chance is important
    • Mutation
    • Genetic drift
    • Gene flow
    • Ecological opportunity
    • 7. Nothing happens for the good of the species, group selection is bunk.
    • What is the macronutrient: nitrogens (NO3- & NH4+) function?
    • protein, nucleic acids
  57. What is the macronutrient: phosphorus (PO4-3) function?
    nucleic acids, ATP, phospholipids, bone
  58. What is the macronutrient: potassium (K+) function?
    solute in animal cells for osmotic balance
  59. What is the macronutrient: magnesium (Mg+2) function?
    chlorophyll, enzyme function
  60. What is the macronutrient: What is the macronutrient: sulfur (SO4-2)?
    protein
  61. What is the macronutrient: calcium (Ca+2) function?
    cell walls, bone, cell permeability
  62. In plants, the following elements function mainly as enzyme co-factors (non-protein helpers in enzymatic reactions):
    *Iron, *Boron, *Zinc, *Manganese, *Chlorine, *Molybdenum, *Copper & Nickel
  63. Animals also need most of the above elements (those marked with an asterisk) as well as the following in trace amounts:
    • *Iron, *Boron, *Zinc, *Manganese, *Chlorine, *Molybdenum, *Copper & Nickel
    • Sodium, Chromium, Cobalt, Fluorine, Iodine, Selenium, Silicon, Tin, Vanadium
  64. How much CO2 gas is present in the atmosphere?
    0.03%
  65. What is the carbon availability for a plant at 100% humidity in the cell?
    Water move out and carbon moves in thought the stomata.
  66. What is the carbon availability for a pant when outside humidity is < 100% outside the cell?
    1g of C fixed. 500g of water leave the plant.
  67. How much CO2 is available in aquatic environments?
    3-6%
  68. What does CO2 form in the water?
    • Carbonic acid
    • CO2 + H2CO3 goes to H+ and HCO3-
  69. What is the source of CO2 photosynthesis for aquatic plants?
    HCO3-
  70. What is the oxygen availability in the atmosphere?
    20%
  71. What is the oxygen availability in aquatic environments?
    1%
  72. What does it mean if there is only 1% oxygen available for aquatic environments?
    That its is a pontential limitant
  73. What does anocix mean?
    Withought oxygen
  74. What is a macronutrient?
    A nutrient that is needed in large quantity
  75. There are 6 macronutrients that for what percent of living things?
    1-4%
  76. What are micronutrients?�
    They are nutrients that are need in small amounts compared to macronutrients.
  77. In reguads to UV radiation, what absorbs most of this dangerous radiation?
    O3 � ozone
  78. What destroys the ozone layer?
    CFCs
  79. What does the atmosphere act as?
    A blanket that warms the earth
  80. What could cause a change in the climate?
    • Burning of fossil fuels
    • Cutting down trees
  81. Area under the curve is energy amount available.
    • UV light � O3 absorbs most dangerous ones in the ozone
    • CFC�s destroy the ozone
  82. Atmosphere acts as a blanket that warms the earth
    • Bad thing? � Climate change
    • CO2 ? fossil fuels being burnt ? added to the atmosphere
    • Cutting down trees
  83. Visible light decreases at sea level then at the edge of the atmosphere and the amount of light is?
    changed but not qualitative change
  84. Chlorophyll doesn�t use green wavelength it
    reflects it
  85. Fate of incoming solar radiation
    2.00 cal/ cm^2 / min = solar constant
  86. The amount of energy the sun is putting out that is received by the earth
    Typically 52.5%
  87. 47.5% direct sunlight or reflected sunlight
    • .475(200) = 0.95 cal/cm^2 / min = avg piece of earth on a given day
    • 1sq m of earth has required energy for 3-4 people
  88. Is all that energy used for photosynthesis ( the direct or reflected sunlight 47.5%)? No. Not all in that region. What does it depend on?
    • Composition of atmosphere (pollution)
    • Season (angle of sun)
    • Topography
    • Time of day
  89. Which slope gets more sun?
    The slope on the north side... that faces south gets more sun
  90. Radiation
    • Transfer of electromagnetic radiation or heat transfer between objects not in physical contact
    • We are losing heat to the env
  91. Conduction
    Transfer of heat between objects in close physical contact.
  92. Convection
    • Transfer of heat by the movement of a fluid over surfaces (conduction)
    • Air
    • Water
  93. What is absolute 0?
    • 0 degrees k
    • Or -273.15 degrees C
  94. What is a wind chill?
    When the wind blows away the boundary layer, you conduct heat more rapidly.
  95. At 22deg C it takes how many caories to convert 1g of iquid water to gaseous water?
    584
  96. Boundary layer
    • � heated or cooled to the same temp as the body
    • Movement of fluid that destroys the boundary layer so you can conduct heat more rapidly
  97. Evaporation
    • Heat lost due to the vaporization of water
    • At 22 deg C take 584 cal to convert 1g of liquid to h2o to gaseous h2o
    • Cool down when you sweat and it take heat with it
  98. Sit in front of a fan to?
    destroy boundary layer and will water will evaporate
  99. Change in heat content of an organism =
    • heat produced by metabolism of the animal.
    • � evap
    • +- radiation
    • +-conduction
    • +- convection
    • Tenv Torg � depends on this
  100. Environmental variation includes?
    • Space & time
    • Aquatic and terrestrial environments
  101. Conditions are what?
    • Any non-depeletedtable component of the environment that may affect organisms
    • Not consumed
    • Not used up
    • = Temperature
  102. Resources are what?
    • Any depletable component of the environment that may affect organism
    • Food
    • Water
    • Plants ? co2, light
  103. Consumed
    assimilated (incorporation into them) used up
  104. Adaptation
    Genetically determined characteristic that increases the growth, survival, and or reproduction of an individual or a population of individuals
  105. What is the mechanism of adaptation?
    Mechanism = natural selection
  106. Describe: Adapt (v.) evolution
    • We cannot adapt, out species can. Our offspring can
    • Populations can adapt. Individuals CAN�T adapt.
  107. The problem of distribution
    • Why individuals of a particular species are present in some places and absent in others?
    • What must an individual do to be able to live in a new habitat or place?
  108. Analysis of the problems of distrubution
    • Must possess the physiological potential to survive, grow and reproduce - genetics (cope with abiotic environment)
    • Must have ecological opportunity to become established � interactions with other organism must be benign (not harmful)
    • Must have physical access to the area - be able to get there
    • Disperse
  109. A species may be absent from a particular area because of...
    Limiting factors & limits of tolerance
  110. What are Limiting Factors?
    Any attribute of the physical environment which affects the survival, growth or reproduction of an individual or a population of individuals
  111. B. Limits of Tolerance Concept
    • 1. Statement of Concept
    • For any abiotic factor there is typically a min, max and an optimum value for an individual or population
    • 2. Tolerance Curve
  112. Eurytypic is
    being widely tolerant
  113. Stenotypic is
    narrowly tolerant
  114. On a tolerance curve the outer most, the low and the high for the abiotic factor (temp)are considered?
    The zone of intolerance
  115. On the tolerance curve, the zone next to the zone of intoleence for abiotic factors is the ?
    Zone of physiological stress.
  116. The zone on the tolerance curve that is the optimum is considered?
    The zone of optimm
  117. What is generally on the Y axis of the graph?
    Success
  118. What determines success?
    Evolution and genetics
  119. 4. Shapes of Tolerance Curves (Principle of Allocation)
    A Jack of all trades is a master of none. The stenotypic graph, the narrow one is the master, and the broad eurytpic one is Jack.
  120. 1. Generalizations
    • Different species have different ranges of tolerance
    • Since physical environments vary geographically, it explains how species vary geographically � communities vary geographically
    • Organisms/species has wide ranges of tolerance for so factors and narrow ranges of tolerance for others
    • Species may demonstrate different ranges of tolerance for the same factor at different times in its life
    • E.G. Newt
    • Amphibian
    • Eggs (water)
    • Larva (gilled)
    • Juvenile (terrestrial)
    • Adult (water)
    • Species with wide ranges of tolerance or many factors tend to be widely distributed geographically
  121. 2. Factor Interaction
    • When Abiotic Factors is not optimum the range of tolerance to other factors may be narrower
    • Ranges of tolerance are done in lab experiments
    • E.G. Turf Grass
    • Spring
    • High precipitation
    • Lots of soil water
    • Temp cool not warm
    • Range of temp is higher because they have plenty of water.
    • Summer
    • Less precipitation
    • Lower amount of water in soil
    • Temp mild to hot
    • Range of temp lower because not much water
  122. D. Important Abiotic Factors (See Lecture Outline 2 and Chapters 6 & 7 of Text and �Questions For Further Thought and Discussion� � SET 2 & SET 3)
    • 1. Temperature
    • 2. Water
    • 3. Light
    • 4. Nutrients
  123. 1. Homeostasis
    • Ability to keep ones internal environment constants in spite of a changing external environment
    • All species have this ability o some extent
    • Rid excess h2o
    • Birds and mammals control body temp
    • Mammals eat to maintain body temp
    • Cant maintain body temp � avoid harsh conditions
  124. When abiotic conditions change: Avoidance
    • A. behavior
    • Simple behaviors �turtle basking�
  125. Resistant life history stage
    • Annual plants right now � seeds
    • Sponges � gennuels
    • Insects � eggs/pupae
  126. What Inactivity:
    hibernation, aestivation, torpor
  127. For inactivity and hibernation what is important to do?
    • Find a protected location
    • Lower body temperature (above 0deg C)
    • Torpid � torpor
    • Lower body temp
  128. What does it mean to become torpid?
    Lower body temp
  129. A Slower metabolism requires?
    less of everything
  130. Cold =
    hibernation
  131. Hot =
    aestivate
  132. Inactivity/hibernation. Has what kind of basis?
    Seasonal basis � below ground � under frost level
  133. Explain Hummingbirds
    • In the summer they have to eat every 20 minutes � high metabolism
    • Don�t eat at night
    • Become torpid
  134. Explain the Shrew
    Carnivore � mammal � eat anything/anyone
  135. Hibernation ? Bears?
    • Lower body temp a little
    • Give birth while hibernating
  136. Migration
    • 2 way movement performed regularly
    • Summer home � winter break and back
    • Birds, insects, fish, whales, bats � ability to become torpid
  137. Phenotypic Plasticity
    Environment induced phenotypic variation
  138. Morphology � lab exercise 2 � explains phenotypic plasticity
    • Sun leaves
    • Shorter, narrower thick?
    • Shade leaves
    • Longer, wider
    • Both have equal mass. Genetically identical. Different phenotypes
  139. Physiology (acclimation)
    Part of phenotype.
  140. Acclimating
    • A physiological adjustment by an individual in response to abiotic factors in the environment
    • Adjust physiology � enzymes change �
    • Fish � range of tolerance. Cold h2o
  141. Extreme Conditions
    • Average � mean median � comparative
    • Extreme example
    • Once a month stuff is dumped into the creek
  142. 6. Daily Fluctuations
    • Light
    • Temp
    • Wind speed
    • House plant � doesn�t experience extreme variation � and they don�t do well
  143. F. Ecological Indicators
    • Species that tells us something about the abiotic environment
    • Plants � cant move
  144. Wet lands � marsh, swamp, bog
    • They are de-lineated � marked by out wetlands are surveyed
    • Indicator plants
    • Obligative wet land plants
    • Require water or saturated soil � cattails
    • Facultative � both environments
  145. Dispersal
    � is a one way movement of an individual away from its home site
  146. 1. Presaturation Dispersal
    • (= Innate) Dispersal
    • Genetically determined tendency to move away from ones parents
  147. 2. Saturation dispersal
    • (= Environmental) Dispersal
    • Movement of an individual from crowded to uncrowded conditions
  148. Animals can swim fly etc. to
    Disperse
  149. Plant are physiologically designed to
    disperse
  150. Most animals have no structural adaptations for dispersal, while plants do
    Cashe seeds � acorns - squirrels
  151. 2. to Disperse or Not
    • There is a continuum. Ones who can disperse and ones who can�t.
    • Running away from competition
    • Fugatative species = always on the run
  152. Rewards of not dispersing
    Parents/home � nice place to live
  153. Risks of not dispersing
    • Competition with relatives
    • Mate with relatives
    • Inbreeding or no breeding
  154. Rewards of dispersing
    • Avoid competition with relatives
    • Avoid inbreeding
    • Colonize a new un-crowded area
    • Cope with changing environment
  155. Risks of dispersing
    Death
  156. Habitat Selection
    � behavioral mechanism that locates individuals in a favorable environment
  157. Distribution for habitat selection..why? � 2 questions
    Proximate vs. Ultimate Perspectives
  158. Proximate answers
    • Immediate physical or physiological cause
    • E.g. burning your hand on the stove, the response is immediate � no brain activity involved
  159. Ultimate answers
    • Evolutionary reasons
    • Survival, growth, reproduction
  160. Proximate reasons animal may choose to live somewhere
    • � food
    • Ultimate answer � where food usually is
  161. Nature
    � genetics (instinct)
  162. Nurture
    � learned (environment)
  163. What is the �preferred habitat� of this species the pied flycatcher?
    - deciduous
  164. Does �habitat preference� seem to be influenced by a hatchling�s early experience?
    � learning I not relevant... seek decidiius Forrest... more there. (genetic nature)
  165. Which influence, �nature or nurture�, appears to be most important in selecting a habitat for the Pied Flycatcher?
    Nature - genetics
  166. Given all of this, why would a Pied Flycatcher nest in a coniferous forest?
    Live in a place it doesn�t prefer � competition � highly genetically influenced
  167. A. Types of Behavior � both observable and measurable � also evolve
    • Habitat selection
    • Migration, hibernation, dispersal
    • Individual maintenance activities (e.g., preening, sleeping, bathing, etc.)
    • Predator-prey, parasite-host, etc.
    • Communication
    • Territoriality
    • Mating behavior
    • Parental behavior
    • Agonistic behavior
    • "Altruistic" behavior
  168. B. Stereotypical Behavior definition
    • � any behavior that is relatively fixed or invariable
    • Ordered
    • Predictable
    • High genetic component
  169. What are releasers?
    • They could be biotic or abiotic.
    • Elected (caused) by environmental attributes called releasers (causes behavior to occur)
    • Fight or flight
    • Genetically determined
    • Proximate � his scream
    • Ultimate - Grow and reproduce
    • Running away is the critical choices
  170. Motivation?
    Animal must be properly motivated � internal sate of the animal
  171. Advantage of stereotypical behavior
    Allows animals to response to appropriately to environments stimuli most of the time
  172. Learned Behavior
    • Learning- modification of behavior due to experience
    • Long lived individuals
  173. Is a bird�s song inherited or learned? Yes!
    • Template of their song in their brain
    • They recognize its song with the template
    • Learning is involved by listening to other individuals of the same species (father)
    • Genetics + learning = both important
  174. Genes determine the limits with in which a behavior can be?
    modified
  175. Experience (learning) determines the precise character of the
    behavior
  176. 1. Nature (stereotyped behavior) vs. nurture (learned behavior)
  177. 2. Anthropomorphism (human form)
    • Attributing human characteristics to non human animals
    • Giving human characteristics to non human animals.
  178. fact is simply an
    observation of nature; facts represent the data of the world.
  179. A hypothesis is a
    testable statement accounting for a fact or set of facts.
  180. A theory is
    a well-supported or well-tested hypothesis or set of hypotheses.
  181. 1. Five Major Components (Hypotheses) of Darwinism: Description and Evidence
    The five mutually compatible components (or sets of hypotheses) are: 1) Perpetual Change; 2) Common Descent; 3) Multiplication of Species; 4) Gradualism; and 5) Natural Selection.
  182. Contemporary Evolution
    • Darwinism Revised (Neo-Darwinism): The Synthesis of Darwinism and Genetics
    • Gergor Mendel is the only one who understood genetics. Darwin wasn�t wrong, just didn�t know or understand Gregor's theories
  183. B. Evolution Defined
    • A change in the frequency of alleles in a gene pool from one generation to the next
    • Individuals do not evolve or adapt
    • Populations adapt
  184. D. Population Genetics: Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium
    Equation p^2 + 2pq + q2 = 1
  185. P =
    frequency of A
  186. Q =
    frequency of a
  187. A =
    0.55
  188. a =
    0.44
  189. Do the cross for Hardy Weinberg
    • AA = 30%
    • Aa = 50%
    • aa = 20%
  190. Conditions for Hardy Weinberg
    • � Population should be large (effects of change are not significant)
    • � Mating is random
    • � Population is closed (no immigration or emigration)
    • � No mutations
    • � Everyone survives & reproduces equally
  191. When you have different outcomes that are not hardy Weinberg (30, 50, 20) what does it mean?
    • Some or one of the conditions are not met
    • Evolution - change
  192. Mutation
    Inheritable change in the genetic material � DNA
  193. What are the common mutations?
    • Point mutation
    • Nucleotide mmutation
  194. Characteristics?
    • Random � unpredictable
    • Ultimate source of new alleles (variation)
    • Rates are low/variable
    • Typically changes for the worse
  195. B. Gene Flow
    • Introduction of alleles into a population by the immigration of individuals carrying alleles from a neighboring population
    • Changing allele frequency
  196. Characteristics of gene flow?
    • Common (dispersal)
    • Gene flow may occur passively or actively.
  197. Results of gene flow?
    • Greater the distance between populations of the same species the greater the difference between them
    • Individuals of the same species often show a regular gradient of variation across a geographical area � Cline
  198. Example of gene flow?
    • Song sparrow (LBB�s)
    • California � small streaked
    • Alaska � large plain
    • Cost of America there is gene flow among neighbors
    • Little sparrows loses heat faster... larger ones have a larger SA/V ration and don�t lose heat as quick
  199. C. Genetic Drift
    Typically � loss of alleles due entirely to chance
  200. Genetic drift is most important to who?
    • Most important in small populations
    • Small populations widely separated � threatened and endangered.
    • E.g. Mi lottery... 1/ga-billion chance of winning
    • Chance is most important in small populations
  201. Result of genetic drift:
    • Loss of alleles � loss of variation
    • Founder effect - unique frequency of allele that aeries in a population derived from a few individuals from a main populations
  202. What is an example of the founder effect?
    • Darwin�s finches
    • 13 different species
    • Got there by chance or bad luck
  203. What is Natural Selection?
    The non random differential survival and differential reproduction of genotypes from 1 generation to the next
  204. What is natural selection expressed as?
    Expressed as differential survival and differential reproduction
  205. Polygenic
    • � many genes. Effected by more then 1 gene.
    • Get a normal distribution
  206. Selective force
    • � agent or process or phenomena...that causes a change in the allele frequency
    • Abiotic + biotic = selected for vs. selected against
    • Against = not quite as well
    • Reproduce a little less for the �for�
  207. Directional Selection
    � selection which tends to favor phenotypes at one extreme or the next � a shift to the right... If the selected against its most of the curve and selected for is less, it will move to make the curve better for the �for�
  208. b. Stabilizing Selection
    • � selection which tends to favor the average phenotype over the extremes in either direction
    • Evolution is the same
    • Range decreases
    • avg stays the same
    • If its works, don�t fix it
  209. Disruptive Selection
    � selection which tends to favor the phenotypes at both extremes relative to the AVG, phenotype � bimodal � could lead to two different species
  210. Two �Special Variations� of Natural Selection
    Kin selection and altruism.
  211. Kin Selection (and Apparent Altruism)
    � selection which tends to favor phenotypes that demonstrates behavior that benefits related individuals
  212. Altruism
    � self sacrifice
  213. Among family members altruism is
    = selfish
  214. Pseudo kin � false kin?
    • Adopted, close friends, step family.
    • How can we explain selfless behavior?
  215. Group selection
    � selection which favors phenotypes that demonstrate behavior that benefits the population at the expense of the individual � unless the group has the same genes as you
  216. Apparent altruism
    � really being nice to someone you have feelings for and car about
  217. Sexual Selection
    • � selection which favors the phenotype that are attractive to the opposite sex
    • Heterosexual � survival and reproduce
    • Body size
    • Brightness
    • Lack of parasites
    • The female chooses the mate � always
  218. Evolutionary fitness
    � ability to survive and reproduce
  219. Altruism among non humans?
    • Yes
    • Eastern bluebirds � �helpers at the nest�
    • Fledgling that sticks around
    • Helps to raise next generation
    • Selfish � helps to get genes into the next population
  220. A. Vertical Evolution �
    phyletic transformation or gradualist. Time A� ? A� ? A�� ? B
  221. B. Divergent Evolution
    • A-->A�
    • A-->A��
  222. C. Convergent Evolution
    • � solved the problem for life in a similar way with no common descent
    • Appearance of similar adaptations in unrelated and originally dissimilar species
    • A and B -> A� and B�
    • Mammals � marsupials � new Zealand & Australia
    • No organs develops between mother and baby
    • It goes outside the mother and into her pouch and drinks milk
  223. D. Co-evolution
    • Concurrent or see saw change in 2 or more interaction populations
    • Predator and prey
    • Host and parasite
    • Selective force = interaction
  224. IV. Extinction
    Diversity of life � vertical evolution � divergent evolution - extinction
  225. Global extinction
    � complete disappearance of all individuals of a species from the planet
  226. Extinction is forever =
    permanent
  227. Local extinction
    � complete disappearance of a species from a particular place � wolverines are extinct in MI
  228. Direct effect of extinction
    Loss of diversity
  229. Indirect effect of extinction
    • Interpret of fossil records
    • Gap (extinction) hard to determine things
    • Intermediate or transitional species
  230. Archaeopteryx � ancient wing = transitional
    • Tiktaalik � fish � a � pod = yes
    • Fish with legs. Fish with neck.
    • Negative force = how could it be positive?
    • New ecological opportunity
    • Extinction of dinosaurs allowed for us
    • Survivors = positive
  231. Patterns of Extinctions: Background (= Normal) Extinctions
    • �Normal� extinctions
    • Move
    • Adapt
    • Die
  232. Causes of Mass Extinctions
    • Higher rate of extinction
    • Increase the number of families per million of years
  233. What cusses mass extinction?
    • Dinosaurs? � Large body impact with the earth � asteroid or comet
    • Moon separated from the earth itself and became moon
    • Destroy atmosphere � block sun
    • Stop photosynthesis
    • 96% of species extinct�large body impact too? Not sure
    • Gradual environmental changes could cause a mass extinction � millions of years
  234. Current Threats to Species: The Sixth Mass Extinction?
    Need data for a few million years

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