Does binding of Ach at nicotinic recepetors cause a fast IPSP, EPSP or both and where does it occur?
on post ganglionic membrane
Does binding of Ach at muscarinic receptors cause an EPSP, IPSP, or both and where does it occur?
both IPSP and EPSP
activates only receptors on the effector membrane
What do cholinergic receptors secrete?
What do Adrenergic receptors secrete?
What are the two groups of adrenergic receptors?
alpha and beta
alpha 1 and 2
beta 1 and 2
What do the adrenergic receptors alpha 1 and alpha 2 cause?
What does the adrenergic receptor beta 1 cause?
decrease HR and contractility (beta blockers would block these sites)
What does the adrenergic receptor beta 2 cause and when would it be useful
What are the main functions of the Sympathetic Nervous System?
inhibits GI movement
diverts blood from skin
GI tract to skeletal muscle
i still need to figure this slide out....
What are the main functions of the Parasympathetic Nervous System?
mediates genital erection
Where does cranial nerve III arise from and terminate?
arise from Edinger-Westphal and goes out to ciliary ganglion and terminates on post ganglion that innervates pupil constrictors
Where does cranial nerve VII arise from and terminate?
arise from superior salivatory nuclei and travel out to sphenopalantine and submandibular, innervating the lacrimal and submandibular gland
Where does cranial nerve IX arise from and terminate?
arise from inferior salivatory nuclei and innervates otic ganglia and postganglion travel to parotid gland
Where does cranial nerve X arise from and terminate?
arise from upper portion of medulla and preganglion travel down to thoracic and upper 2/3 abdominal viscera and provide parasympathetic input to these regions. lower portion abdominal receives parasympathetic from S2-S4
Where does the heart refer pain to?
That's why in men they report left arm weakness with a heart attach because it shares sensory infor from T1
What does T6-T8 have referred pain to?
Where does the stomach refer pain to?
Where does the superior cervical send sympathetic output to?
What is considered the "stellate" ganglion?
the fusion of the inferior cervical ganglion and T1
Where do the middle cervical ganglia and inferior cervical ganglia send sympathetic output to?
What is under descending control of the hypothalamus?
Cranial nerve III, VII, IX, X
What is the basic problem with Horner's Syndrome?
sympathetic input to the face has been disrupted
Where has damage occured to cause Horner's Syndrome?
descending fibers from the hypothalamus that go down to upper thoracis SC levels
superior cervical ganglia where the postganglion arise to travel to the face
What are possible causes of the damage that has occured to causes Horner's Syndrome?
brainstem stroke (damage descending pathways)
SCI (damage descending pathways)
wound, infection, or superior lobe resection of the lung (famage peripheral ganglia)
What are four common characteristics of Horner's Syndrome?
miosis: paillary constriction
anhidrosis: lack of sweating on one side of face
ptosis: drooping of the eyelid
enophthalamos: eyes sinks into the orbit
What is the external sphinctor of the bladder controlled by?
skeletal muscle (voluntary control)
What are the basic SNS and PSNS functions of the bladder?
Where does the internal sphinctor receive input from?
Sensory input in the wall of the bladder helps do what?
Form the reflexive arc with the external sphinctor so it closes off, and doesn't stretch too much
Where is the PSNS input from in the bladder?
S2-S4 (detrusor mm)
Where does ascending input from the bladder travel?
cortex and brainstem
What nerve roots correspond with incontinence?
S2, S3, S4
What does the descending output "tell" the bladder?
that's it's okay to "go"
What is another name for spastic bladder?
automatic reflex bladder
What happens in a spastic bladder and where has the injury occurred?
injury occurs to SC or CNS above S2
as bladder fills it continually stretches causing a reflex contraction of detrusor
What is another name for atonic bladder?
What happens with a flaccid bladder
LMN is intact by there is no descending control the stretch reflex is blocked allowing the bladder to continue to stretch and it eventually starts leaking out
What causes autonomic dysreflexia (big picture)?
noxious stimuli occurs below the lesion which fires up the SNS becauses there are now descending pathways to counteract it
What are two red flags that someone may have autonomic dysreflexia?
increase in perspiration
What's a common cause of autonomic dysreflexia?
kink in a catheter so the pressure builds up in the bladder because it can't get rid of the urine which arouses the SNS
What happens in autonomic dysreflexia (BP, HR, etc....)
CO increases causing vasoconstriction and an increase in BP
increase in BP stimulates the vasculature receptors, which increase the PSNS activity which causes a vagal response to decrease HR and vasodialtion above level of the lesion