GI Session 1

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GI Session 1
2011-02-20 19:45:41
GI gastrointestinal

westernu GI session 1 2011
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  1. name mm of tongue & floor of mouth
  2. describe movement of palate
    • •Soft palate can swing
    • down to block off oropharynx (chewing:
    • palatoglossus & palatopharyngeus) and swing up to block of nasopharynx: (swallowing: tensor & levator veli palatini mm, musculus uvulae).
  3. describe innervation of palate
    • •Efferent: X (mm of soft palate), V3 (tensor veli palatini m), VII & superior cervical
    • ganglion (palatal glands)

    •Afferent: V2
  4. describe vasculature of soft palate
    •Branches of maxillary a (gr. & lesser palatine aa, sphenopalatine a)

    •Venous drainage via pterygoid venous plexus
  5. describe lymph dainage of palate
    •Upper deep cervical lymph nodes
  6. what is the foramen cecum of the tongue
    marks the place where thyroid gland descended (proximal part of thyroglossal duct)
  7. what papillae DON'T have taste buds?
    filiform; they ar sensitive to touch & raspy
  8. describe general efferents to tongue
    • • C1: Nerve to geniohyoid – geniohyoid
    • (hitchhikes along hypoglossal n)

    • • V3: Nerve to mylohyoid – mylohyoid,
    • anterior belly of digastric

    • X: Pharyngeal plexus – palatoglossus

    • • XII: Muscular branches – genioglossus,
    • hyoglossus, styloglossus, intrinsic tongue mm
  9. describe general afferents of the tongue?

    special afferents?
    • 1.• V3: Lingual nerve – anterior 2/3 tongue
    • • IX: – posterior 1/3 of tongue

    • 2. VII: anterior 2/3 of tongue and palate
    • IX: posterior 1/3 of tongue and posterior wall of
    • oropharynx

    X: epiglottis
  10. describe the connections of the sublingual region
    •The sublingual and submandibular spaces are connected posteriorly around the free edge of the mylohyoid muscle.

    • •The submandibular and submental spaces are connected anteriorly (there is no real division beyond the anterior belly of the digastric
    • muscle).

    • •Posteriorly, the sublingual and submandibular
    • spaces communicate with deep spaces in the neck defined by layers of deep cervical fascia (fascial
    • planes).
  11. describe the deep cervical fascia.
    • Investing layer - most superficial and encircles the
    • neck like a collar. Splits to enclose the trapezius, sternocleidomastoid and infrahyoid strap muscles. Extends superiorly to enclose the parotid and submandibular glands.

    • Visceral layer - encircles the thyroid gland, trachea
    • and esophagus. Attaches to the hyoid bone and is continuous superiorly with the buccopharyngeal fascia of the pharynx. Continuous inferiorly with the fibrous
    • pericardium.

    • Vertebral layer - encloses the spinal column and deep cervical muscles. Splits anteriorly to form the alar fascia posterior to the esophagus. The alar part joins with the visceral fascia at the level of T2. The
    • vertebral layer proper is continuous inferiorly with anterior longitudinal ligament of the spine and the investing fascia of the deep muscles of the back.

    • Carotid sheaths - encircle the internal and common
    • carotid arteries, the internal jugular vein and the vagus nerve. Continuous with the visceral, vertebral and investing layers.
  12. picture of deep cervical fascia
  13. pic of Xsection of deep cervical fascia
  14. name & describe the deep spaces of the neck
    Pretracheal space – between visceral layer and larynx/trachea. Ends in the thorax.

    Prevertebral space – between vertebral layer and vertebral bodies. Starts at the base of the skull and endsin the thorax.

    Retropharyngeal space – betweenvisceral and alar layers. Starts at the base of the skull and ends at T1/T2.

    Alar space – between alar and vertebral layers. Starts at the base of the skull and ends at the diaphragm.Contains the sympathetic trunks.

    Parapharyngeal spaces – oneither side of the pharynx, between the investing layer, the buccopharyngealfascia of the pharynx, and the alar layer. These spaces are high up in theneck, extending from the base of the skull to the hyoid bone. They contain the carotid sheaths and deep cervical lymph nodes.
  15. describe the count of deciduous vs permanent teeth?
    I=incisors; C=canines; DM=decid molar; P=premolar; M=molar

    • Deciduous: I 2/2; C1/1; DM 2/2 (total 20)
    • Permanent: I 2/2; C1/1; P 2/2 M 3/3 (total 32)