A&P Lecture

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Anonymous
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67708
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A&P Lecture
Updated:
2011-02-20 20:01:55
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Blood Vascular Physiology Heart
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Lecture Test II
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  1. Where does the body store its iron?
    Hemoglobin (65%), Liver, Spleen, in the blood bound to transferrin.
  2. Which kind of anemia has a select advantage against malaria?
    Sickle cell anemia
  3. What is the life span of an erythrocyte?
    100-120 Days
  4. What is the primary organ that has a function in degrading and releasing old erythrocytes?
    Spleen
  5. What two types of anemia are associated with low Hemoglobin content?
    Iron deficiency anemia and pernicious anemia
  6. What factor must be present in order for the body to absorb B12?
    Intrinsic factor
  7. What kind of disorder/s are most common among people of Mediterranean descent?
    Thalassemias
  8. What is fibrinolysis?
    It is a molecule that removes clots when repair is complete
  9. Hemoglobin has how many subunits?
    4 (2 alpha chains and 2 beta chains)
  10. What is an abnormal excess of erythrocytes?
    Polycythemia
  11. The heart serves two circuits. What are these circuits and which one of them is responsible for oxygenuptake by the erythrocytes?
    pulmonary circuit and the systemic circuit. The pulmonary circuit is responsible for making oxygen available to erythrocytes
  12. What do the P Wave, the QRS Wave, and the T Wave represent in an electrocardiogram?
    P wave- atrial depolarization, QRS wave- ventricular depolarization, T wave- ventricular repolarization
  13. What is the purpose of the fibrous pericardium?
    This structure anchors the heart to the surrounding structures and prevents overfilling.
  14. What is an anastamosis?
    an anastomosis is any arrangement of blood vessels that allows an alternate pathway for blood totake around a blockage.
  15. What are the three kinds of anastamosis?
    Arterial anastomoses, Arteriovenous anastomoses, Venous anastomoses
  16. What are the neural branches called that enter the ventricular wall and first encounter the papillarymuscle?
    Perkinje fibers
  17. The left side of the heart receives blood from the ____________ and pumps through the ____________.
    pulmonary veins, systemiccirculation
  18. What valves are loose valves that close during ventricular contraction and are anchored to the papillarymuscles by the chordate tendinae?
    atrialventricular valves
  19. What is found in an artery that cannot be found in a vein
    Elastic lamina
  20. T or F – pericytes are tight junctions between endothelial cells that prevent the movement of cell sizedbodies out of the lumen.
    False: pericytes are smooth muscle-like cells that stabilize capillaries and lie on the basementmembrane.
  21. Fluids flow from areas of_________ pressure to areas of __________ pressure.
    high, low
  22. What is the most important factor affecting resistance when talking about blood?
    Vessel diameter
  23. What is Angiogenesis?
    Growth in size and numbers of blood vessels after a long time of either deficient or excessive levels ofO2.
  24. ____________ are stretch receptors that are sensitive to blood pressure changes.
    Baroreceptors
  25. Are receptors that are sensitive to changes in O2, H+, and CO2 levels.
    Chemoreceptors
  26. What medical device measures blood pressure?
    sphygmomanometer
  27. What is the tunica intima composed of?
    simple squamous epithelium
  28. What are the 3 types of arteries?
    Elastic/Muscular/Arterioles
  29. Which tunica of a blood vessel do vasa vasorum innervate?
    tunica externa
  30. Which type of artery tends NOT to vasoconstrict?
    Elastic arteries
  31. Where would you find fenestrated Capillaries in the body, and what is their function?
    Kidneys, intestine, and endocrine organs; they allow passage of small solutes through their porousmembranes. (passive transport)
  32. What are the bands of smooth muscle that help regulate blood flow through the capillaries called?
    precapillary sphincters
  33. If someone has a systolic pressure of 120 mm Hg and a diastolic pressure of 90 mm Hg what is theirmean arterial pressure (MAP)?
    100 mm Hg
  34. What are the motive forces behind blood flow in the venous system?
    muscular pump and the respiratory pump
  35. What are the three types of autoregulation of perfusion and how do they work?
    • A: Metabolic controls-lack of nutrients or oxygen causes endothelial cells to release NO, a powerful localvasodilator
    • A: Myogenic controls-precapillary sphincters respond to lack of oxygen or nutrients by relaxing
    • A: Angiogenesis

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